Zimbabwe has had many presidential elections which have been held in contrasting fashions since the country attained independence in 1980. Irregularities were raised over the elections and allegations of rigging, murder, rape, fraud, intimidation and violence were raised by Parties who contested in the elections.

See Elections.
See Electoral System in Zimbabwe.
See Zimbabwe Electoral Commission.
See Zimbabwe Election Support Network (ZESN).
See The Election Resource Centre.
See Political Parties Finance Act.

1980

Southern Rhodesia held general elections, in accordance with the conclusions of the Lancaster House agreement, to decide upon a government that would rule the country. Zanu-PF won making Robert Mugabe the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.

It was alleged that the 1980 elections, which were defining in that they marked the end of colonial rule and the dawning of political independence, were rigged.

See ZAPU and the 1980 election.

Irregularities

The late Vice President Joshua Nkomo, in his personal memoirs, The Story of My Life, believed the 1980 elections were rigged and that Zanu-PF used militias to cordon off some parts of the rural areas it believed to be potential strongholds of his political party, The Zimbabwe African People’s Union ZAPU. He points out to politically motivated violence, murder and rape perpetrated on political competitors as some of the ways Zanu-PF used to steal the 1980 election. “…the British election supervisors in an interim report had told the governor that more than half of the electorate was living in conditions where a free vote could not take place.

Nkomo claimed that Zapu was cheated out of some seats it could have won, given a fair campaign,” he noted in his personal account of the tyranny that characterised Mugabe’s rule.

Cabinet 1980

These elections resulted in the: Zimbabwe Cabinet 1980

1985

A newly independent Zimbabwe held general elections for the first time. Zanu PF under Robert Mugabe was re-elected with an increased majority.

See Zimbabwe 1985 Parliamentary Election.

Irregularities

1990

This year marked the first elections to be contested under the amended constitution of 1987, which established an elected executive presidency and abolished the Senate. Edgar Tekere, then ex-Minister of Labour and Man-Power Planning, ran against Mugabe as the candidate of the Zimbabwe Unity Movement (ZUM). He had been expelled from Zanu PF following his consistent criticism of corruption. Tekere was strongly against Mugabe’s notion of a one party state as he was quoted of saying:

“A one-party state was never one of the founding principles of ZANU-PF and experience in Africa has shown that it brought the evils of nepotism, corruption and inefficiency.”

Results

The elections were held 23 March 1990.
Presidential:

  • Registered Voters 4,799,333
  • Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 2,587,204 (53.9%)
  • Invalid/Blank Votes 146,388
  • Total Valid Votes 2,440,816
Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF) 2,026,976 83.05%
Edgar Tekere (ZUM) 413,840 16.95%


House of Assembly:

  • Registered Voters Not Available
  • Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 2,237,846 (% N/A)
  • Invalid/Blank Votes 139,653
  • Total Valid Votes 2,098,193
Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (120)*
Zanu-PF 1,690,071 80.54% 117
ZUM 369,031 17.59% 02
ZANU-Ndonga 19,448 0.93% 01
UANC 11,191 0.53% -
NDU 498 0.02% -
Independents 7,954 0.38% -
  • 120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.
Bulawayo
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Bulawayo North John Nkomo Zanu PF 8 581
Crispen Mwete ZUM 4 550
Turnout 13 743 38.74 %
Bulawayo South Lot Senda Zanu PF 9 661
Samson Mushore ZUM 5 405
Themba Dlodlo Independent 2 110
Zachariah Chigumira ZANU–Ndonga 830
Turnout 18 789 56.56 %
Lobengula Joshua Nkomo ZANU–PF 8 706
Maxwell Nyandoro ZUM 1 420
Stephen Chisimo UANC 205
Turnout 10,576 24.62 %
Luveve Angeline Masuku Zanu PF n/a
Full results for Luveve were not released. Turnout n/a n/a
Magwegwe Norman Zikhali Zanu PF 19 202
Robert Mutendi ZUM 3 988
Tongesai Nyandoro UANC 992
Turnout 24 769 54.95 %
Makokoba Sidney Malunga Zanu PF 11 136
Ishmael Nyakudarika ZUM 3 238
Turnout 15,090 45.80 %
Mpopoma Edson Ncube Zanu PF 13 164
Philip Hadebe ZUM 3 042
Grey Bango Independent 359
Godfrey Mpezeni UANC 287
Phineas Sithole ZANU–Ndonga 234
Turnout 17 877 38.29 %
Nkulumane Dumiso Dabengwa Zanu PF 15 494
Victor Katsolo ZUM 3 470
Caleb Nyatoti UANC 328
Turnout 20 840 61.24 %
Pelandaba Joseph Msika Zanu PF 10 902
Christopher Mariga ZUM 2 202
Turnout 13 204 36.85 %
Harare
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Chitungwiza Witness Mangwende Zanu PF 20 217
Dominic Macheka ZUM 6 316
Munyamana Gwavhu NDU 237
Turnout 27 533 64.97 %
Dzivarasekwa William Mushonga Zanu PF 24 218
Elijah Manjeya ZUM 11 240
Moses Jiri UANC 477
Turnout 38 938 98.97 %
Glen View Necasio Mangisi Zanu PF 15 415
George Mugura ZUM 9,348
Jonias Makadzange UANC 323
Turnout 25 873 59.75 %
Highfield East Herbert Ushewokunze Zanu PF 8 292
Joseph Dendere ZUM 5 473
Jeremiah Nyamande Independent 275
Xavier Chihota NDU 64
Turnout 14,103 35.92 %
Highfield West Richard Nyandoro Zanu PF 18 676
Isaac Manyemba ZUM 10 666
William Chadzukwa UANC 3 284
Turnout 33 132 91.76 %
Kambuzuma Oliver Chidawu Zanu PF 8 740
Xebio Bosha ZUM 5 423
Frederick Mahere UANC 247
Nicholas Hatidani Independent 241
Farai Masango Independent 77
Turnout 14 728 43.67 %
Harare Central Bernard Chidzero Zanu PF 9 545
Raphael Hamadziripi ZUM 6 864
Turnout 17 120 37.31 %
Harare East Margaret Dongo Zanu PF 16 390
Morgan Changamire ZUM 9 770
Turnout 28 220 70.04 %
Harare North Tirivanhu Mudariki Zanu PF 11 967
Masipula Sithole ZUM 5 055
Turnout 18 371 56.76 %
Harare South Smith Marara Zanu PF 15 100
Davison Gomo ZUM 8 156
Noah Chifungo ZANU–Ndonga 1 203
Turnout 25 762 n/a
Harare West Don Chipango Zanu PF 15 675
Stephen Nyoka ZUM 7 323
Turnout 24 460 55.16 %
Mabvuku Irene Mugabe Zanu PF 14 107
Edyson Chiwara ZUM 5 290
Pendeka Stanlake Nyakudya UANC 342
Turnout 25 762 n/a
Manyame Joel Mupfudza Zanu PF 14 298
Conrad Mukosera ZUM 5 644
Turnout 21 320 45.95 %
Mbare East Tony Gara Zanu PF 12 522
Biston David ZUM 4 420
Tawinei Chitongo NDU 197
Turnout 17 880 51.76 %
Mbare West Ephraim Masawi Zanu PF 8 315
Nesbert Mutengezanwa ZUM 4 415
Robert Marowa UANC 339
Turnout 13 493 37.36 %
Mufakose Patrick Marime Zanu PF 15 144
Everisto Ngwena ZUM 3 544
Edward Mazaiwana UANC 1 087
Turnout 20 308 55.17 %
St Mary's Joseph Macheka Zanu PF 18 323
Stanley Musonza ZUM 4 905
Turnout 23 228 50.94 %
Zengeza Benjamin Moyo Zanu PF 16 370
Simon Mapengo ZUM 7 646


Manicaland
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Buhera North Nevison Nyashanu Zanu PF 20 260
Gabriel Chaiva ZUM 1 644
Turnout 22 490 69.61 %
Buhera South Kumbirai Kangai Zanu PF 22 423
Lovemore Shoniwa ZUM 1 330
Turnout 24 481 n/a
Buhera West Victoria Chitepo Zanu PF 9 988
Denny Munetsi ZUM 58
Turnout 10 386 n/a
Chimanimani Michael Mataure Zanu PF 10 687
Lucky Maringapasi ZUM 1 158
Tinarwo Mwazviwanza ZANU–Ndonga 545
Kingdom Sithole Independent 282
Turnout 13 074 39.49 %
Chipinge North Gordon Mushakavanhu ZUM 10 087
Joseph Muzite Zanu PF 7 065
Goodson Sithole ZANU–Ndonga 5 347
Turnout 24 323 52.51 %
Chipinge South Wiseman Zengeni ZANU–Ndonga 8 970
Killian Mvududu ZUM 8 721
Henry Moyana Zanu PF 3 616
Turnout 22 309 47.62 %
Makoni Central Didymus Mutasa Zanu PF 10 805
Godfrey Mandimutsira ZUM 3 644
Turnout n/a n/a
Makoni East Dexter Chavunduka Zanu PF 18 755
Winnie Mwashita ZUM 5 988
Turnout 27 102 80.37 %
Makoni South Gibson Munyero Zanu PF 9 626
Lazarus Mtungwazi ZUM 2 525
Turnout 13 499 31.80 %
Makoni West Moven Mahachi Zanu PF n/a
Turnout n/a n/a
Mutare Central Daniel Sithole ZUM 9 058
Zororo Duri Zanu PF 8 700
Clement Mhlanga ZANU–Ndonga 411
Turnout 18 842 41.71 %
Mutare North Oppah Muchinguri Zanu PF 14 165
Giles Mutsekwa ZUM 13 484
David Mabunyara ZANU–Ndonga 1 481
Turnout 30 671 72.22 %
Mutare South Lazarus Nzarayebani Zanu PF 10 520
Christopher Zimunya ZUM 3 925
Turnout 15 636 39.89 %
Mutare West Moton Malianga Zanu PF 14 806
Wilson Murwiri ZUM 4 349
Turnout 20 765 46.67 %
Mutasa Misheck Chinamasa Zanu PF 6 864
Christopher Nyamwanza ZUM 6 007
Turnout 14 234 33.89 %
Nyanga Tichaendepi Masaya Zanu PF 11 184
Sylvester Matsapa ZUM 6 025
Turnout 19 289 43.10 %
Mashonaland West
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Chegutu Mashava Mugwagwa Zanu PF 20 420
Edward Hamadziripi Chipape ZUM 3 182
Turnout 25 301 76.18 %
Hurungwe Kenneth Marombe Zanu PF 25 818
Clement Gondo ZUM 3 635
Turnout 31 681 89.63 %
Kadoma East Edna Madzongwe Zanu PF 18 312
Leslie Mashayamombe ZUM 2 450
Turnout 33 498 95.18 %
Kadoma West Enos Chikowore Zanu PF 25 865
Luke Bosha ZUM 4 368
Turnout 31 663 73.16 %
Kariba Tongayi Nyikadzino Zanu PF 27 482
Peter Munjaranji ZUM 3 933
Turnout 33 498 76.18 %
Karoi Edgar Kwenda Zanu PF 5 432
Tommy Charewa ZUM 696
Turnout 6 483 18.10 %
Makonde Central Nathan Shamuyarira Zanu PF 23 430
Sungano Janhi Moyo ZUM 3 171
William Marumahoko UANC 674
Turnout 28 678 76.29 %
Makonde East Mudhomeni Chivende Zanu PF 27 865
Noah Bangure ZUM 4 451
Turnout 35 104 74.99 %
Makonde North Swithun Mombeshora Zanu PF 13 883
Cleopas Watama ZUM 2 125
Turnout 16 953 42.80 %
Makonde West Sean Hundermark Zanu PF 16 507
Robert Ruzivo ZUM 1 513
Turnout 19 204 45.47 %
Mhondoro Felix Muchemwa Zanu PF 10 610
Douglas Chanakira ZUM 1 488
Turnout 12 707 34.74 %
Ngezi Frederick Mugwangwavari Zanu PF 8 222
Lovemore Tapera ZUM 400
Turnout 9 036 25.41 %
Zvimba Sabina Mugabe Zanu PF 8 008
Esau Chakupe ZUM 525
Turnout 8 852 20.73 %
Mashonaland Central
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Bindura Joice Mujuru Zanu PF 35 262
Emmanuel Magoche ZUM 4 110
Turnout 41 669 92.91 %
Centenary Border Gezi Zanu PF Unopposed
Chiweshe Chenhamo Chimutengwende Zanu PF Unopposed
Guruve Ephraim Chafesuka Zanu PF Unopposed
Mount Darwin Richard Mujana Zanu PF 22 892
Peter Sango ZUM 1 363
Olis Manyeruke Independent 570
Turnout 26 425 n/a
Mukumbura Joseph Kaparadza Zanu PF Unopposed
Shamva Donald Nyamaropa Zanu PF Unopposed


Mashonaland East
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Chihota Ernest Chipitiri Zanu PF 10 343
Jackson Muzambi ZUM 1 088
Zacharia Nyamadzawo Independent 332
Turnout 12 599 29.47 %
Chinomora Kenneth Bute Zanu PF 13 525
Anathasio Mushimbo ZUM 1 586
Turnout 16 393 42.08 %
Goromonzi Herbert Murerwa Zanu PF 19 678
Percy Chigodora ZUM 2 967
Turnout 24 460 51.49 %
Marondera Sydney Sekeramayi Zanu PF 18 892
Sheila van Reenen ZUM 3 195
Turnout 23 479 66.20 %
Mudzi Bainos Mupezeni Zanu PF Unopposed
Murehwa North Alois Mangwende Zanu PF Unopposed
Murehwa South David Karimanzira Zanu PF Unopposed
Mutoko North Mabel Chinomona Zanu PF Unopposed
Mutoko South Richard Katsande Zanu PF 19 176
Claudius Mugambiwa Independent 933
Turnout 22 174 58.72 %
Wedza Stanlake Marwodzi Zanu PF 16 507
Joshua Siya ZUM 1 501
Turnout 19 993 50.76 %


Masvingo
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Bikita East Gabriel Machinga Zanu PF unopposed
Bikita West Jewel Kufandada Zanu PF 10 715
Kenneth Matimba Zanu PF 3 719
Turnout 15 656 41.93 %
Chiredzi Central Henry Pote Zau PF 21 903
Leo Chanda ZUM 4 420
Turnout 29 239 68.96 %
Chiredzi South Aaron Baloyi Zanu PF unopposed
ChiredziZaka Titus Maluleke Zanu PF unopposed
Chivi North Ketina Mudamburi Zanu PF unopposed
Chivi South Paradza Mandebvu Zanu PF 18 834
Munashe Chidavashe ZUM 767
Turnout 20 368 48.95 %
Gutu East Ephraim Marwizi Zanu PF 8 865
Nelson Mawema Zanu PF 5 951
Turnout 15 367 41.91 %
Gutu North Joseph Mandaba Zanu PF 12 409
Oliver Munyaradzi Zanu PF 7 657
Turnout 21 467 59.40 %
Gutu South Shuvai Mahofa Zanu PF 18 799
Isaac Chimwanda ZUM 1 226
Turnout 20 758 60.06 %
Masvingo Central Dzikamai Mavhaire Zanu PF 26 188
Naboth Musabayana ZUM 3 905
Turnout 32 062 76.36 %
Masvingo North George Mudukuti Zanu PF unopposed
Masvingo South Eddison Zvobgo Zanu PF unopposed
Mwenezi Zephaniah Matchaba-Hove Zanu PF 22 547
Philemon Baloyi ZUM 1 105
Turnout 24 916 56.08 %
Zaka East Simbi Mubako Zanu PF 7 118
Wurayayi Chisamba Zanu PF 4 812
Isaac Gwenure ZUM 530
Turnout 13 371 n/a
Zaka West Jefta Chindanya Zanu PF 19 803
Gladman Machakata ZUM 1 205
Turnout 22 536 47.25 %


Matabeleland North
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Binga Paul Siachimbo Zanu PF 7 358
Abraham Chiketo ZUM 2 708
Turnout 14 199 34.83 %
Bubi Micah Bhebhe Zanu PF 14 639
Michael Ndondo ZUM 2 708
Turnout 19 102 56.17 %
Hwange Crispen Sibanda Zanu PF 19 790
Elton Muchemwa ZUM 5 847
Turnout 28 340 61.97 %
Lupane Nkosembi Khumalo Zanu PF 18 379
Thomas Sililo Masuku ZUM 3 222
Turnout 23 790 50.33 %
Nkayi Welshman Mabhena Zanu PF 16 313
Rogers Ndlovu ZUM 1 182
Turnout 19 797 48.91 %
Nyamandhlovu Mark Rosenfels Zanu PF 10 462
Geoffrey Peterson ZUM 1 796
Turnout 13 204 36.49 %
Tsholotsho Amos Mkwananzi Zanu PF 19 993
Elliot Mlotshwa ZUM 1 936


Matabeleland South
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Beitbridge Kembo Mohadi Zanu PF 16 190
Simon Ncube ZUM 2 624
Turnout 21 502 52.43 %
Bulilimamangwe North Richard Ndlovu Zanu PF 16 385
Shortie Ncube ZUM 2 172
Turnout 20 233 56.81 %
Bulilimamangwe South Simon Khaya-Moyo Zanu PF 12 151
Michael Ndawana ZUM 1 502
Turnout 15 233 45.67 %
Gwanda North Johnson Ndlovu Zanu PF 15 364
Agrippa Madlela Independent 1 524
Clement Khumalo ZUM 1 331
Turnout 19 083 55.06 %
Gwanda South Eliah Masiyane Eliah Masiyane Full results for Gwanda South were not released.
Insiza Naison Ndlovu Zanu PF 13 660
Newman Ndlela ZUM 2 560
Turnout 17 848 45.59 %
Matobo Stephen Nkomo Zanu PF 17 346
Reason Nkomazana ZUM 1 323
Turnout 21 282 58.33 %
Umzingwane Thenjiwe Lesabe Zanu PF 12 122
Hezikia Hlabangana ZUM 1 740
Aaron Ndabambi Independent 882
Turnout 15 606 35.52 %



Midlands
Constituency Candidate Party Votes
Chikomba Ernest Kadungure Zanu PF 25 929
Jesmiel Chakauya ZUM 1 589
Turnout 28 630 59.58 %
Chirumanzu Hlomayi Mangwende Zanu PF 21 468
Hoinos Machaya ZUM 1 856
Turnout 24 649 56.07 %
Gokwe East Titus Marongwe Zanu PF 19 888
Isaiah Mucheki ZUM 1 761
Turnout 22 989 67.05 %
Gokwe North Benson Mbowa Zanu PF 20 672
Patrick Manwende ZUM 2 626
Turnout 24 862 55.48 %
Gokwe South Jason Machaya Zanu PF 21 785
Nokuthula Nduka ZUM 2 511
Turnout 25 872 74.60 %
Gokwe West George Marange Zanu PF n/a
Turnout Full results for Gokwe West were not released.
Gweru Central Simon Muzenda Zanu PF 14 083
Patrick Kombayi ZUM 5 234
Bernard Kutesera UANC 285
Turnout 20 173 52.54 %
Gweru North Cyril Ndebele Zanu PF n/a
Turnout n/a Full results not released
Gweru South Ernest Tongogara Zanu PF 17 311
Bernard Gwati ZUM 4 863
Onward Manyeruke UANC 387
Turnout 23 281 55.28 %
Kwekwe Emmerson Mnangagwa Zanu PF 23 898
Sylvester Chibanda ZUM 7 094
Turnout 32 428 78.97 %
Mberengwa East Richard Hove Zanu PF 21 632
Ben Shumba ZUM 1 004
Turnout 23 355 51.27 %
Mberengwa West Ben Mataga Zanu PF 22 005
Choboro Masarira Independent 1 513
Mathias Munyenyiwa ZUM 1 242
Turnout 26 216 55.76 %
Shurugwi David Ruzive Zanu PF 25 575
Peter Musiyiwa ZUM 1 630
Turnout 28 343 63.22 %
Silobela Steven Vuma Zanu PF 14 402
Kaiza Jackson ZUM 2 479
Turnout 17 589 54.16 %
Zvishavane Tsungirirai Hungwe Zanu PF 22 438
Raphael Mudari ZUM 2 823
Turnout 26 461 58.00 %
Zhombe Peter Hewlett Zanu PF 15 912
Rodger Ross ZUM 1 083
Raphael Muroyiwa Independent 380
Turnout 18 241 53.71 %

Irregularities

It is reported that Tekere received unprecedented support for his opposition to Mugabe which led to massive election rigging by Zanu PF in order for Mugabe to win. ZUM supporters were the targets of violent attacks which resulted in five candidates being murdered. Those convicted of the attempted murder of former Gweru Mayor the late Patrick Kombayi who was shot in the lower abdomen but survived the shooting, were pardoned immediately afterwards.

1996

The elections were contested by the incumbent President Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe Rhodesia-era Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa, and Zanu-Ndonga leader Ndabaningi Sithole. Mugabe won, claiming over 90% of the vote, though there was just a 32.3% turnout, largely as a result of Sithole and Muzorewa withdrawing their candidacies shortly before the election (though their names remained on the ballot).

16-17 March 1996 Presidential Election
Registered Voters 4 822 289
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 1 557 558 (32.3%)
Invalid/Blank Votes 43 497
Total Valid Votes 1 514 061
Results
Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Robert Mugabe (Zanu-PF) 1 404 501 92.76%
Abel Muzorewa (UP) 72 600 4.80%
Ndabaningi Sithole (ZANU-Ndonga) 36 960 2.44%

Sithole and Muzorewa withdrew during the week prior to balloting but their names remained on the ballot and both garnered votes.

Irregularities

  • Sithole

Ndabaningi Sithole was under virtual house arrest on charges of attempting to assassinate Mugabe so he withdrew claiming that Zanu-PF was undermining his authority.

REVEREND NDABANINGI SITHOLE INTERVIEW



Sithole was found guilty of conspiring to assassinate Mugabe in December 1997 and sentenced to two years in jail. He appealed, failed and died whilst he was still on bail.

ZIMBABWE: NDABANINGI SITHOLE SENTENCED TO 2 YEARS IN JAIL



  • Muzorewa

Abel Muzorewa pulled out after the supreme court turned down his bid to postpone the elections on the basis that the electoral rules were unfair.

  • Margaret Dongo

There were allegations that the voters’ register was littered with inaccuracies, ghost voters and dead people whose names had not been deleted. It was such non-existent voters that the opposition believed were used to rig elections in areas where Zanu-PF would have been defeated. Margaret Dongo, in 1995, successfully contested the election out-come in Harare South constituency on the basis that the voters’ role was in shambles. The fact that she won her case in the High Court made a lot of people believe that the state of the voters’ roll made it liable to abuse by the ZANU-PF.


2000

24-25 June 2000 House of Assembly Election
Registered Voters 5 049 815
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) Not Available (N/A)
Invalid/Blank Votes Not Available
Total Valid Votes 2 493 925


Results
Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (120)
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (Zanu-PF) 1 212 302 48.6% 62
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) 1 171 051 47.0% 57
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga) 17 629 0.7% 01
Others 92 943 3.7% -
  • 120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.

By province

Harare Province
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Budiriro
Gilbert Mutimutema Shoko MDC 21 058
Gladys Hokoyo Zanu PF 4 410
Nyorovai Tafaranarwo UP 96
Aaron Magama Ind 93
Chitungwiza
Fidelis Mhashu MDC 15 480
Endy Mhlanga Zanu PF 6 057
Mhonda Tahwinei Chitongo NDU 164
Chiwetu Nyika UP 101
Dzivarasekwa
Edwin Mushoriwa MDC 18 516
Omega Hungwe Zanu PF 6 083
Wailes Chapariza Nyaguhwa Ind 584
Paddington Japajapa Ind 173
Edson Wadyehwata Ind 122
Nyasha Chikoore UP 120
Glen Norah
Priscilla Misihairabwi MDC 17 866
Thomas Magwirokona Mapanzure Zanu PF 3 517
Jonathan Marimbire UP 159
Nogget Martha Muchenje ZUD 147
Davison Mandega ZANU (Ndonga) 119
Admire Denenga Ind 0
Glen View
Paul Madzorere MDC 16 470
Sabina Mangwende Zanu PF 3 443
Clive Makusha Chimbi Ind 209
Netsai Godwin Matambirwa UP 100
Fatima Mbizi ZUD 48
Pearson Musakwa ZCP 16
Harare East
Tendai Laxton Biti MDC 18 129
Stalin Maumau Zanu PF 4 391
Heneri Dzinotyyiwei ZIP 140
Harare Central
Michael Theodore Hayes Auret MDC 14 207
Winston Dzawo Zanu PF 3 620
Obey Mudzingwa Ind 76
Charles David Mukome UP 39
Harare North
Getrude Bavier Lottie Stevenson MDC 18 976
Nyasha Chikwinya Zanu PF 4 852
Nhamo Chester Mhende Ind 707
Justin Chiota ZPP 222
Lily Angela Anne Murapa Ind 202
Harare South
Gabriel Chaibva MDC 12 430
Vivian Mwashita Zanu PF 4 730
Margaret Dongo ZUD 951
Fisher Albert Aldridge Timothy Ind 0
Hatfield
Tapiwa Mashakada MDC 11 740
Irene Zindi Zanu PF 5 413
David Farai Muzorewa UP 124
Dambudzo Frank Heart Jangano Ind 111
Mike Nedi Duro Ind MDC 62
Tafadzwa Abel Savanhu Ind 58
White Robson Ind 39
Highfield
Munyaradzi Gwisai MDC 12 616
Ida Mashonganyika Zanu PF 3 234
Richard Shambambeva-Nyandoro Ind 1 120
Phillip Zulu UP 185
Shakespeare Mudzingwa ZUD 139
Kambuzuma
Willias Madzimure MDC 13 722
Oliver Chidwao ZANU (PF 2 542
Jaison Chandavengerwa Munyki UP 101
Kingstone Dutiro Ind 77
Charles Mushore Manyonga Ind 77
Jane Madzongwe ZUD 74
Kuwadzana
Learnmore Jongwe MDC 15 691
Clifford Mumbengegwi Zanu PF 4 349
Zebron Chawaipira Ind 155
Henry Struck Mahlangu ZANU (Ndonga) 144
Elizabeth Masvikenyi UP 67
Mathias Kufandimbwa Ind 0
Mabvuku
Justin Mutendadzamera MDC 17 495
Pamela Tungamirai Zanu PF 5 572
Mukandira Raphael UP 264
Mbare East
Tichaona Jephta Munyanyi MDC 10 754
Tony Gara Zanu PF 4 265
Robert Godfrey Musasiwa Ind 232
Stephen Guvira ZUD 109
Mbare West
Donemore Sasi Makuvaza MDC 13 118
Tendai Savanhu ZANU (PF 3 078
Agnes Muremberi Ind 312
Verna Chitumba UP 88
Mufakose
Paurina Mpariwa MDC 15 233
Sabina Zvenando Thembani Zanu PF 3 965
Lovemore Chenai Moyo Mutete UP 350
St Mary's
Job Sikhala MDC 17 740
Christopher Pasipamire Zanu PF 6 135
Zengeza
Tafadzwa Basilo Musekiwa MDC 14 814
Christopher Chikavanga Chigumba Zanu PF 5 330
Evelyn Chimwaya ZANU (Ndonga) 172
Gideon Chinoyerei PDF 90
Bulawayo Province
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Bulawayo North East
Welshman Ncube MDC 21 100
Joshua Malinga Zanu PF 2 864
Sikhumbuzo Ncube ZAPU 227
Arnold Payne Ind 87
Eliakimo Ncube Liberty Party 37
Bulawayo South
David Coltart MDC 20 781
Callistus Ndlovu Zanu PF 3 193
Charles Mpofu Ind 281
Done Dhlmini ZAPU 34
Shadreck Ndlovu UP 25
Pelandaba
Jeffrey Khumalo MDC 16 462
Edward Simela Zanu PF 2 696
Stephen Nkomo ZAPU 270
Victor Chipanga UP 57
Canaan Zinothi Moyo Liberty Party of Zimbabwe 54
Jele Ndimande Liberty Party 35
Pumula-Luveve
Esafu Mdhlongwa MDC 18 901
Norman Zikhali Zanu PF 3 020
Jethro Mkwananzi ZAPU 263
Zakhele Mpofu Ind 127
Jeremiah Michael Ndlovu UP 61
Beauty Sidambe LPZ 53
Elizabeth Mudanda LP 50
Makokoba
Thokozani Khuphe MDC 12 901
Sithembiso Nyoni Zanu PF 2 196
Matson Hlalo Ind 1 773
Mutandazo Ndlovu ZAPU 113
Thokozile Mbewe LPZ 43
Rachel Munetsi UP 34
Mpopoma
Milton Gwetu MDC 14 813
Sikanyiso Ndlovu Zanu PF 2 540
Paul Siwela ZAPU 146
Rachal Mpala Liberty Party 83
Lobengula
Fletcher Dulini MDC 17 041
Isaac Nyathi Zanu PF 2 197
Elliot Dube ZAPU 177
Florence Ndebele LPZ 119
Stephen Mpofu Ind 60
Joshua Mgutshini LP 32
Nkulumane
Gibson Sibanda MDC 20 380
Dumiso Dabengwa Zanu PF 3 644
Mike Parira Mpofu Ind 417
Mqondobanzi Progress Nduna Magonya ZAPU 205
Shortie Ncube UP 63
Mandhlaenkosi Nkala LPZ 36
Ernerst Moyo Ind 25
Twoboy Jubane Liberty Party 18
Mashonaland East
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Seke
Tumbare Mutasa MDC 10 821
Phineas Chihota Zanu PF 9 236
Beta Zvanyanya Dongo ZUD 2 047
Peter Mashumba Ind MDC 703
Abraham Mombeshora Ind MDC 388
Gerald Mubaira Ind 320
Ronald Sadomba UP 133
Marondera West
Rufaro Gwanzura Zanu PF 11 221
Shadreck Chipangura MDC 4 570
John Tsimba Ind 728
Ernest Shora ZUD 0
Marondera East
Sydney Sekeramayi Zanu PF 10 692
Didymus Munenzva MDC 10 629
Sekai Tungai UP 248
Pascal Dangwa Ind 205
Chikomba
Chenjerai Hunzvi Zanu PF 13 417
Peter Kaunda MDC 6 776
Moses Jiri UP 362
Julia Kunzekwenyika Ind 161
Leticia Mujeyi ZIP 103
Charles Patrick Ind 0
Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe
Kenneth Mutiwokuziva Zanu PF 27 748
Bonomali Marere MDC 2 128
Moses Madakuenda UP 560
Murehwa North
Victor Chitongo Zanu PF 13 694
Musarurwa Mudzingwa MDC 4 104
Josiah Mujuru UP 461
Murehwa South
Joel Biggie Matizha Zanu PF 13 895
Ward Nezi MDC 4 426
Edson Chiwara UP 505
Mutoko South
Olivia Muchena Zanu PF 19 228
Derek Muzira MDC 1 177
Patrick Chabvamuperu Ind 627
David Mahachi UP 129
Mudzi
Ray Joseph Kaukonde Zanu PF 27 149
Israel Karonga MDC 2 371
Simon Chikazi UP 690
Mutoko North
David Chapfika Zanu PF 17 374
Gents Chinomona MDC 2 447
Leon Chiimba UP 372
Goromonzi
Herbert Murerwa Zanu PF 14 459
Leonard Chiutsi Mapuranga MDC 9 489
David Chikaka Ind MDC 1 102
Nyembesi Musanduri UP 319
Hwedza
Aeneas Chigwedere Zanu PF 18 044
Pearson Tachiveyi MDC 6 049
Catherine Kafunda UP 351
Wilson Muzondo Ind 161
Mashonaland West
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Chinhoyi
Phillip Chiyangwa Zanu PF 8 176
Silas Matamisa MDC 7 602
Eugene Nyahundi UP 99
Zvimba North
Ignatius Chombo Zanu PF 16 175
Hamilton Gomba MDC 5 872
William Chirambasukwa Ind 0
Zvimba South
Sabina Mugabe Zanu PF 16 508
Titus Nheya MDC 4 689
Forgiveness Pasimupindu Manika Ind 2 195
Chipembere Muzondiwa UP 334
Mhondoro
Hilda Mafudze MDC 10 783
Mavis Chidzonga Zanu PF 9 118
Shakespeare Maya Ind 1 210
Titus Mukarati UP 543
Kadoma West
Zachariah Urayayi Ziyambi Zanu PF 11 758
Edward Ngoma MDC 4 581
Chikomborero Dhliwayo ZUD 451
Stephen Manyange UP 373
Kadoma East
Munyaradzi Paul Mangwana Zanu PF 11 678
Richard Emmanuel Moyo MDC 3 362
Kadoma Central
Austin Wilson Mupandawana MDC 12 049
Israel Mukwesha Zanu PF 5 666
John Zhoya UP 166
Chegutu
Charles Ndlovu Zanu PF 12 169
Philemon Thambatshira MDC 10 412
Shadreck Karuwa UP 485
Cleopas Sibanda Ind 0
Makonde
Swithun Mombeshora Zanu PF 13 066
Robert Ruzivo MDC 3 294
Casper Masikini UP 728
Kariba
Isaac Mackenie Zanu PF 15 048
Lucas Gombe Sigobole MDC 7 332
Cephas Duwira Ndoro-Mazasi UP 560
Hurungwe East
Reuben Marumahoko Zanu PF 14 814
Richard Chaza MDC 4 415
Council Nziramasanga NPA 617
Hurungwe West
Mark Madiro Zanu PF 18 931
Tsvangwa Kanhema MDC 4,532
Luckson Shereni Magara UP 929
Mashonaland Central
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Shamva
Nicholas Tasunungurwa Goche Zanu PF 19 460
Joseph Mashinya MDC 5 621
Mazowe West
Christopher Tachiona Kuruneri Zanu PF 14 024
Biggie Township Chigonero MDC 7 085
Florence Chimunda Ind 414
Mazowe East
Chenhamo Chimutingwende Zanu PF 18 824
Shepherd Leonard Mushonga MDC 7 473
Gibson Madombwe UP 533
Bindura
Border Gezi Zanu PF 13 328
Elliot Pfebve MDC 11 257
Florence Mudyavanhu UP 334
Mount Darwin North
Joyce Mujuru Zanu PF 20 629
Ephraim Hondo Pfebe MDC 2 037
John Fanuel Dzvingwa ZANU Ndonga 717
Derry John Katimba UP 411
Mount Darwin South
Saviour Kasukuwere Zanu PF 22 733
Godfrey Donnie Mumbamarwo MDC 2 295
Michael Gomo UP 406
Guruve North
Paul Mazikana Zanu PF 20 513
Allan McCormick MDC 2 370
Margaret Chagadama UP 668
Guruve South
Edward Chindori-Chininga Zanu PF 19 988
Gift Chimankire MDC 3 239
Rushinga
Lazarus Dokora Zanu PF 20 027
Joel Mugariri MDC 2 438
Michael Chin'ono UP 439
Muzarabani
Nobbie Dzinzi Zanu PF 19 441
Timoth Mukwengwe MDC 3 727
Manicaland
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Buhera North
Kenneth Vhundukai Manyonda Zanu PF 12 850
Morgan Tsvangirai MDC 10 316
Buhera South
Kumbirai Manyika Kangai Zanu PF 14 016
Stephen Seven Maambire MDC 7 821
Chimanimani
Roy Leslie Bennett MDC 11 410
Munacho Thomas Mutezo Zanu PF 8 072
Hardwell Dumisani Kundhlande ZANU (Ndonga) 543
Chipinge North
Messias Matewu MDC 9 283
Gideon Chinosara Goko Zanu PF 3 728
Vesta Zvamwaida Sithole ZANU (Ndonga) 2 925
Margie Mungwari ZUD withdrawn
Chipinge South
Tarugarira Wilson Khumbula ZANU (Ndonga) 10 248
Enock Porusingazi Zanu PF 4 086
Elijah Magaa MDC 3 283
Piko Hlahla Ind 182
Makoni North
Didymus Noel Edwin Mutasa Zanu PF 14 835
Valentine Tinodyanavo Ziswa MDC 3 357
Elton Steers Mangoma Ind ZIP 1 330
Makoni West
Moven Enock Mahachi Zanu PF 11 138
Elisha Remus Makuwaza MDC 7 356
Abel Tendekai Muzorewa UP 923
Egypt Dzinemunenzva ANP 862
Makoni East
Tongesayi Shadreck Chipanga Zanu PF 7 509
Nicholas Mudzengere MDC 7 391
Phineas Nyagura UP 212
Mutare Central
Innocent Tinashe Gonese MDC 17 706
Christopher Peter Chingosho Zanu PF 3 091
Patrick Chitaka Ind 985
Felix Murimi Ind 754
Moses Jackson Mvenge Ind 324
Munhu Haashati Naison Sithole ZANU (Ndonga) 83
Mutare North
Giles Mutsekwa MDC 15 500
Oppah Chamu Zvipange Muchinguri Zanu PF 5 564
Justin Nyatoti UP 235
Mutare South
Sydney Mukwecheni MDC 7,273
Michael Madiro Zanu PF 6,673
Lazarus Gumisai Nzarayebani Ind 637
Washington Pfupajena Ind 238
Denniford Musiyarira ZANU (Ndonga) 218
Mutare West
Christopher Mushowe Zanu PF 11 498
Tambaoga Nyazika MDC 5 818
Shepherd Mkwekwezeke Ind 622
Tobias Nemasasi Ind 341
Mutasa
Evelyn Masaiti MDC 9 278
Mandi Mandiita Wepi Chimene Zanu PF 5 281
Noah Chitungo UP 268
Abel Samanga ZUD 262
Dzawanda John Nyamunda Ind 0
Nyanga
Leonard Ringisai Chirewamangu MDC 10 016
Paul Kadzima Zanu PF 8 891
David Cozai Hamunakwadi UP 701
Midlands
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Gokwe South
Jaison Machaya Zanu PF 12 644
Lameck Muyambi MDC 3 615
Witness Foyo Ind Zanu PF 1 490
Gweru Rural
Renson Gasela MDC 10 190
Makumucha Mbulawa Zanu PF 6 889
Similo Moyo LPZ 264
Canaan Moyo Liberty Party of Zimbabwe 0
Gweru Urban
Timothy Lancaster Mukahlera MDC 12 172
Richard Chemist Hove Zanu PF 3 877
Ruyedzo Mutizwa Ind 1 019
Sylvester Bennard Mutesera UP 117
Kwekwe
Blessing Chebundo MDC 15 388
Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa Zanu PF 8 352
Milton Chinamasa Ind 227
Cuthbert Mwenye Chidava UP 176
Zhombe
Daniel Mackenzie Ncube Zanu PF 10 757
Anna Mtisi MDC 8 165
Gibson Dhuza UP 539
Albert Charles Moyo Madambe Ind 386
Ganagana Wilbroad Ind 0
Zvishavane
Pearson Meeting Mbalekwa Zanu PF 13 971
Farai Maruzane MDC 10 373
Misheck Hogwe Ind 1 028
Emmie Ncube UP 256
Mberengwa East
Rugare Gumbo Zanu PF 23 595
Sekai Holland MDC 3 117
Mberengwa West
Jorum Gumbo Zanu PF 18 315
Mufandaedza Hove MDC 3 889
Lyton Shumba Ind 968
Edwin Nyathi Ind 667
Chirumanzu
Innocent Wilson Chikiyi Zanu PF 10 708
Gideon Makumbe MDC 5 185
Chawawona Wilbroad Kanoti Ind 1 052
Edward Mhaka Chiropa UP 238
Gokwe Central
Lovemore Mupukuta Zanu PF 11 082
Edson Nyathi MDC 5 987
Ernest Nkomazana Ind 436
Pio Poteredzai Paraffin Ind 364
Christopher Sibindi Ind 0
Samson Muchimwe 0
Gokwe North
[[Elick Mkandla Zanu PF 15 923
Sibangani Malandu MDC 3 967
Javen Chibendure ZUD 1 152
Timothy Mpofu UP 360
Gokwe East
Flora Bhuka Zanu PF 17 088
Timothy Madzori MDC 3 674
Clever Gombo Ind 1 202
Fiso Sibindi Ind 738
Silas Makuva Mutendi Ind 2 534
William Muzenda ZUD 619
Gokwe West
Esther Nyauchi Zanu PF 14 956
Edgar Sithole MDC 3 240
Colleen Nyoni ZUD 0
Mkoba
Stanley Bethel Makwembere () MDC 14 587
Federick Shava Zanu PF 4 840
Lot Macharaga ZUD 1 011
Alois Matsika Mudhavanhu ZIP 72
John Samubvu Ind 64
Maxwell Mupukuta UP 0
Shurugwi
Francis Nhema Zanu PF 14 891
Lucia Gladys Matinenga MDC 6 524
Maria Stella Rusere ZUP 523
Silobela
Abednico Mathe Malinga MDC 15 985
Tommy Moyo Zanu PF 5 848
Godfrey Viki ZAPU 481
Priscilla Mangena UP 393


Masvingo
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Bikita East
Walter Mutsauri Zanu PF 7 047
Edmore Marima MDC 5 015
Mathew Makaza Ind MDC 212
Julias Chapungu Ind 0
Bikita West
Amos Munyaradzi Mutongi MDC 7 726
Rtd. Col. Cladius William Makova Zanu PF 7 441
Chiredzi North
Elliot Marilele Chauke Zanu PF 10 154
Moses Mare MDC 8 674
Abel Peter Miller ZANU (Ndonga) 530
Chiredzi South
Aaron Baloyi Zanu PF 11 611
Patrick Mapengo MDC 6 414
Joel Kenneth Sithole ZANU (Ndonga) 794
Chivi North
Samuel Creighton Mbengegwi Zanu PF 10 947
Bennard Chiondengwa MDC 3 938
Albert Meke, alias Chamwadoro Ind 3 762
Chivi South
Charles Majange Zanu PF 12 056
Alex Elias Mashamhanda MDC 4 312
Paradza Mandebvu Ind 1 683
Lawson Mapfaire, alias Sithole Ind MDC 0
Gutu North
Simon Vengai Murefu Muzenda Zanu PF 14 867
Chrispen Zvouno Musoni MDC 8 179
Tirivanhu Fanuwere Mufandaedza UP 678
Gutu South
Shuvai Mahofa Zanu PF 11 434
Rensom Makamure MDC 6,606
Vengai Greeley Guni Ind 3,070
Jefta Abraham Mukombe Ind 1,200
Luckmore Masarira Ind 843
Gracious Zinyeka Ind MDC 84
Cyprene Jacob Matanga UP 25
Masvingo Central
Silas Joseph Man'ono MDC 12 417
Dzikamai Calisto Mavhaire Zanu PF 8 023
Kudzai Savious Mbudzi Ind 314
Mbengo Nason Mhlanga ZANU (Ndonga) 0
Ray Muzanda () Ind MDC 0
Masvingo North
Gorerazvo Stan Mudenge Zanu PF 8 146
Joseph Mutema MDC 7 224
Sylvester Beji Ind 1 050
Masvingo South
Edson Jonasi Zvobgo Zanu PF 14 954
Zachariah Isaac Rioga MDC 5 544
Mwenzi
Isaiah Shumba, alias Mwasvayamwando ()) Zanu PF 22 676
Kudakwashe Bhasikiti Ind 2 643
Luciah Masekesa MDC 1 881
Godfrey Halimani Ind MDC 917
Zaka East
Tinos Rusere Zanu PF 12 730
Ratidzo Richard Mugwagwa MDC 6 778
Zaka West
Jefta Johnson Chindanya ()) Zanu PF 10 928
Charles Musimiki MDC 7 444
Mapetere Vincent Dziva Mawere Ind 3 890
Matabeleland North
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Bubi-Mguza
Jacob Thabani Mabikwa MDC 12 837
Obert Mpofu Zanu-PF 6 645
Rueben Donga ZAPU 1 272
Mark Harold Ncube LPZ 889
Canaan Calisto Ndebele Liberty Party 223
Hwange East
Cephas Nyoni MDC 15 271
Jacob Mudenda Zanu PF 3 617
George Ncube Ind 339
Khumbulani Ncube ZAPU 384
Hwange West
Jealous Sansole MDC 15 132
Sphiwe Mafuwa Zanu PF 2 445
Gifton Ndumani ZAPU 429
Binga
Joel Gabhuza MDC 19 894
Joshua Muzamba Zanu PF 2 678
Leonard Ndlovu ZAPU 594
Lupane
David Mpala MDC 14 439
Headman Moyo Zanu PF 3 300
Kenneth Mhlanga ZAPU 972
Matabeleland South
Constituency / Name Party Votes
Beitbridge
Kembo Mohadi Zanu PF 12 988
Seyiso Moyo MDC 7 686
Malobeli Smith Mbedzi ZAPU 1 084
Bulilima-Mangwe North
Moses Mzila Ndlovu MDC 11 767
Richard Ndlovu Zanu PF 8 679
Bulilima-Mangwe South
Edward Tshotsha Moyo Mkhosi MDC 11 761
Simon Khaya Moyo Zanu PF 5 617
Callistus Dube ZAPU 556
Cosmos Ncube LPZ 253
Pharaoh Hezekiya Tusi UP 233
Gwanda North
Paul Themba Nyathi MDC 13 039
Thenjiwe Lesabe Zanu PF 4 358
Agrippa Hlangabeza Madlela ZAPU 299
Jabulani Ndlovu LPZ 242
Patrick Moyo ZAPU 221
Gwanda South
Abednico Ncube Zanu PF 9913
Paulos Matjaka Nare MDC 7944
Mchasisi Nare Ind 674
Insiza
George Joe Ndlovu MDC 12 049
Naison Ndlovu Zanu PF 5 304
Albert Ncube ZAPU 974
Matobo
Lovemore Moyo MDC 14 701
Ananias Sitomi Nyathi Zanu PF 6 219
Andrew Ngwenya LPZ 419
Augustine Mbelekwa Tinaye Dube Ind 213
Umzingwane
Nomalanga Mzilikazi Khumalo MDC 12 878
Tomas Dube Zanu PF 2 887
Albert Ndlovu Ind 437
Elias Njani ZAPU 282
Christopher Dube LPZ 176
Rev. Albert Ncube ZIP 118
Florence Ngwenya LPZ 45
Tsholotsho
Mtoliki Sibanda MDC 12 318
Ndabazekaya Mathema Zanu PF 5 634
George Moyo LPZ 0
Nkayi
Abednico Bhebhe MDC 15 701
Obidiah Moyo Zanu PF 5 746
Maploti Donga ZAPU 2 047
Nelson Moyo LPZ 404
Clerk Mpofu LP 313

Further Reading

Parliamentary Elections in Zimbabwe, 2000 By David Pottie.
Manager of the Democracy Development Unit at the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa.
P O Box 740, Auckland Park, 2095, South Africa
Tel: +27 11 482 5495; Fax: 482 6163; e-mail dpottie@eisa.org.za
File:JAEPottie2000Elections.pdf 10 pages.

2002

President Robert Mugabe won claiming 56,2% of the vote which was the closest presidential election to date. The AU described the election as “transparent, credible, free and fair.

9-11 March 2002 Presidential Election
Registered Voters 5 647 812
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 3 130 913 (55.4%)
Invalid/Blank Votes 132 155
Total Valid Votes 2 998 758
Results
Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of Votes
Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF) 1 685 212 56.2%
Morgan Tsvangirai (MDC) 1 258 401 42.0%
Wilson Kumbula (ZANU-Ndonga) 31 368 1.0%
Shakespeare Maya (NAGG) 11 906 0.4%
Paul Siwela 11 871 0.4%

Irregularities

The conduct of the election was strongly condemned by the Commonwealth, Norwegian observers, Zimbabwean opposition figures, and Western governments and media.

The 2002 Presidential election is alleged to have marked the consolidation of totalitarianism and thickening of intolerance. It is also believed to have brought in the notion of winning elections “by an means necessary” as was postulated in a Zanu-PF Central committee meeting minutes of March 2007. It was also claimed that this election laid bare the electoral chicanery that Zanu-PF had already been suspected of. As noted by Professor Jonathan Moyo, the former Minister of Information and Publicity in Mugabe’s government, the incumbent used the military, national intelligence, police forces, government ministries and departments and traditional chiefs to win the election.

2005

31 March 2005 House of Assembly Election
Registered Voters 5 658 624
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 2 696 670 (47.7%)
Invalid/Blank Votes 62 025
Total Valid Votes 2 634 645
Results
Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (120)
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (Zanu-PF) 1 569 867 59.59% 78
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) 1 041 292 39.52% 41
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga) 6 608 0.25% -
Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance (ZIYA) 594 0.02% -
Zimbabwe People's Democratic Party (ZPDP) 61 0.00% -
Independents 16,223 0.62% 01
  • 120 seats are filled through direct election; 30 seats are reserved for appointees.


26 November 2005 Senatorial Election
Registered Voters 3 239 574
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 631 347 (19.5%)
Invalid/Blank Votes 21 052
Total Valid Votes 610 295


Results
Party Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Seats (50)
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (Zanu-PF) 449 860 73.71% 43
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) 123 628 20.26% 07
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga) 11,023 1.81% -
Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance (ZIYA) 6 919 1.13% -
Peace Action is Freedom for All (PAFA) 5 278 0.86% -
African National Party (ANP) 3 585 0.59% -
Zimbabwe African People’s Union-Federal Party (ZAPU-FP) 213 0.03% -
Multi-Racial Open Party-Christian Democrats (MOP-CD) 100 0.02% -
Independents 9 689 1.59% -
  • Partially boycotted by the main opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).
  • 50 seats were filled through direct election; 16 seats were reserved for appointees (6 presidential appointees & 10 traditional chiefs).

2008

The three major candidates were incumbent President Robert Mugabe (Zanu PF), Morgan Tsvangirai (MDC), and Simba Makoni, an independent. Nearly a month passed before election results were announced which prompted the MDC to seek an order from the High Court to force their release. It was unsuccessful.

As no candidate received an outright majority in the first round, a second round was held on 27 June 2008 between Tsvangirai (with 48% of the first round vote) and Mugabe (43%). Tsvangirai withdrew from the second round a week before it was scheduled to take place, citing violence against his party’s supporters. The second round went ahead, despite widespread condemnation, and led to victory for Mugabe.

First Round (29 March 2008)
Registered Voters 5 934 768
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 2 537 240 (42.8%)
Invalid/Blank Votes 39 975
Total Valid Votes 2 497 265
Second Round (27 June 2008)
Registered Voters 5 934 768
Total Votes (Voter Turnout) 2 514 750 (42.4%)
Invalid/Blank Votes 131 481
Total Valid Votes 2 383 269
Results
Candidate (Party) First Round Second Round
Number of Votes % of Votes Number of Votes % of Votes
Morgan Tsvangirai (MDC) 1 195 562 47.87% 233 000 9.78%
Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF) 1 079 730 43.24% 2 150 269 90.22%
Simba Makoni 207 470 8.31% - -
Langton Towungana 14 503 0.58% - -

Irregularities

The period following the first round was marked by political violence. Zanu-PF and the MDC each blamed the other’s supporters for perpetrating the violence; Western governments and prominent Western organisations blamed Zanu-PF for the violence.

See Silent Coup in Zimbabwe 2008

Faced with a widely condemned election victory, a parliament without two-thirds majority of his Zanu PF, and a broadly recognized first round result in which Tsvangirai was leading, Mugabe found himself with no choice but to accept the regional and international community’s suggestions for a negotiated political settlement.

2013

This marked the first election held under a new constitution, which was approved in a referendum in March 2013.

Irregularities

2018

See Presidential election 2018.
See Zimbabwe 2018 Harmonised Elections.
See Presidential Candidates 2018 election.

Irregularities

See Post Election Violence in 2018.
See Nelson Chamisa Presidential Election Result Challenge.

Cabinet 2018

These elections produced:
Government Ministries of Zimbabwe

2022

Zimbabwe By-elections (March 2022)
2022 March By-election Winners in Zimbabwe

List of 2022 March By-election winners
Province Constituency Winning Candidate Party
Manicaland Dangamvura-Chikanga Prosper Mutseyami Citizens' Coalition for Change (CCC)
Manicaland Mutasa South Misheck Mugadza Zanu-PF
Bulawayo Pumula Sichelesile Mahlangu CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Harare East Tendai Biti CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province St Mary's Unganai Tarusenga CCC
Mashonaland East Marondera Central Caston Matewu CCC
Mashonaland East Murewa South Nyasha Masoka Zanu-PF
Harare Metropolitan Province Kambuzuma Willias Madzimure CCC
Midlands Province Mbizo Settlement Chikwinya CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Kuwadzana Johnson Matambo CCC
Masvingo Province Chivi South Munyaradzi Zizhou Zanu-PF
Harare Metropolitan Province Highfield East Erick Murai CCC
Bulawayo Metropolitan Province Nkulumane Kucaca Phulu CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Highfield West Happymore Chidziva CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Glen Norah Wellington Chikombo CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Kuwadzana East Chalton Hwende CCC
[Harare Metropolitan Province]] Harare Central Murisi Zwizwai CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Glen View North Fani Munengami CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Mufakose Susan Matsunga CCC
Harare Metropolitan Province Epworth Zalerah Makari Zanu-PF
Midlands Province Kwekwe Central Judith Tobaiwa CCC
Mashonaland East Province Mwenezi East Master Makope Zanu-PF
Mashonaland East Province Mberengwa South Tasara Hungwe Zanu-PF
Mashonaland East Province [[Marondera] East Jeremiah Chiwetu Zanu-PF
Matabeleland North Province Tsholotsho South Musa Ncube Zanu-PF
Matabeleland North Province Binga North Prince Dubeko Sibanda CCC
Midlands Province Gokwe Central Daveson Masvisvi Zanu-PF
Midlands Mkoba Amos Chibaya CCC