Government of National Unity

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Morgan Tsvangirai, Robert Mugabe and Arthur Mutambara, the principles of the Government of National Unity

The Government of National Unity was a coalition government between the three major political parties in Zimbabwe formed on 13 February 2009 after the signing of the Global Political Agreement.

Background

The need for a coalition government rose after the 2008 parliamentary as well as Presidential elections which were marred with violence and human rights violations. The official results of the presidential election were only announced after a month resulting in claims of vote rigging by the Movement for Democratic Change. the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission (ZEC) announced on May 2 that Morgan Tsvangirai of the MDC has won the election with 47,9% against Robert Mugabe's 43,2%. However Tsvangirai failed to garner the 51% required by law necessitating a run-off slated for 27 June. Tsvangirai withdrew from the election on 23 June following intimidation of his supporters. He said said 86 people had been killed and 10 000 injured in the violence. About 10 000 homes had been destroyed, displacing 200 000 people.[1] However the election went ahead with many people being forced to vote for Mugabe. It is alleged what made the situation worse is that many of the ZEC officials who presided over the March 29 elections were replaced by Zanu PF loyalists for the June 27 run off.[2] Many countries did not recognize the elections as free and fair paving way for negotiations mediated by the then South African President Thabo Mbeki that started on 23 July 2008.

Power Sharing

The negotiations ended on 11 September 2008 with the Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (ZANU PF), MDC led by Tsvangirai and MDC led by Arthur Mutambara reaching an agreement. This followed the inauguration of Tsvangirai as Prime Minister, Thokozani Khupe and Mutambara as Deputy Prime Ministers. The Tsvangirai-led MDC was allocated 13 ministries, the MDC ed by Mutambara 3, and ZANU PF was allocated 15 ministries under the agreement[3]

Outstanding Issues

The principles of the GNU failed to implement some provisions outlined in the Global Political Agreement.Some of the disagreements were left unresolved even after the tenure of the GNU.The notable isues were disagrements over media reforms that included failure to repeal restrictive statutes such as the Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (AIPPA) and the Broadcasting Services Act (BSA). There were also disagreements in the appointment of senior political officils notably Attorney General Johannes Tomana, Reserve Bank Governor Gideon Gono, and Deputy Agriculture Roy Bennett.[4]

Achievements

In its four year existence, the GNU, has facilitated improvements in the economy, health and housing. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) recorded a 10,6% growth and inflation decreased from the 231 million recorded in 2008 to less than 5% in 2013.In agriculture tobacco production grew from 56 000 tonnes in 2008 to 134 000 in the 2012 season.[5] The drafting of a new constitution in 2013 was also a major feature achieved by the coalition government.

Cabinet

Portfolio Minister Party
President Robert Mugabe ZANU–PF
First Vice President Joyce Mujuru MP ZANU–PF
Second Vice President style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator John Nkomo ZANU–PF
Prime Minister style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Morgan Tsvangirai MP MDC–T
Deputy Prime Minister style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Mutambara/meta/color; width:1em" | Professor Arthur Mutambara MDC–M
Deputy Prime Minister style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Thokozani Khuphe MP MDC–T
Minister of Public Service style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Elphas Mukonoweshuro MP MDC–T
Minister of Women's Affairs, Gender and Community Development style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Olivia Muchena MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Defence style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Emmerson Mnangagwa MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Youth Development, Indigenisation and Empowerment style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Saviour Kasukuwere MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Science and Technology Development style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Professor Henry Dzinotyiweyi MP MDC–T
Minister of Economic Planning and Investment Promotion style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Elton Mangoma MP MDC–T
Minister of Higher and Tertiary Education style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Stan Mudenge MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Industry and Commerce style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Mutambara/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Professor Welshman Ncube[6] MDC–M
Minister of Regional Integration and International Cooperation style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Mutambara/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Priscilla Misihairabwi-Mushonga[6] MDC–M
Minister of Home Affairs style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Co-minister: Giles Mutsekwa MP MDC–T
style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Co-minister: Kembo Mohadi MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Finance style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Tendai Biti MP MDC–T
Minister of Health and Child Welfare style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Doctor Henry Madzorera MDC–T
Minister of Local Government and Urban Development style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Ignatious Chombo MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Justice and Legal Affairs style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Patrick Chinamasa ZANU–PF
Minister of Agriculture style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Joseph Made ZANU–PF
Minister of Education, Sport and Culture style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Mutambara/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator David Coltart MDC–M
Minister of Environment style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Francis Nhema MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Tourism style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Walter Mzembi MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Constitutional and Parliamentary Affairs style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Eric Matinenga MP MDC–T
Minister of State Enterprise and Parastatals style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Samuel Sipepa Nkomo[6] MDC–T
Minister of Information and Communications Technology style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Nelson Chamisa MP MDC–T
Minister of Public Works style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Theresa Makoni MP MDC–T
Minister of Labour and Social Welfare style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Paurine Mpariwa MP MDC–T
Minister of Transport and Infrastructural Development style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Nicholas Goche MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Mines and Mining Development style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Obert Mpofu MP ZANU–PF
Minister of National Housing and Social Amenities style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Fidelis Mhashu MP MDC–T
Minister of Energy and Power Development style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Elias Mudzuri MP MDC–T
Minister of Foreign Affairs style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Simbarashe Mumbengegwi ZANU–PF
Minister of Media, Information and Publicity style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Webster Shamu MP ZANU–PF
Minister of Water Resources and Development style="background: Template:Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai/meta/color; width:1em" | Joel Gabuza MP MDC–T
Minister of Lands and Land Resettlement style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Herbert Murerwa MP ZANU–PF
Provincial Governor of Mashonaland East style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Aeneas Chigwedere ZANU–PF
Provincial Governor of Mashonaland West style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Faber Chidarikire ZANU–PF
Provincial Governor of Mashonaland Central style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Martin Dinha ZANU–PF
Provincial Governor of Masvingo style="background: Template:Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front/meta/color; width:1em" | Senator Willard Chiwewe ZANU–PF
Provincial Governor of Matabeleland North
Provincial Governor of Matabeleland South
Provincial Governor of Manicaland
Provincial Governor of Midlands
Provincial Governor of Harare
Provincial Governor of Bulawayo

References

  1. Owen Gagare, Alarming intimidation August 10, 2012, Retrieved June 30, 2014
  2. Zimbabwe Elections : 2008 Sokwanele, Retrieved: June 30, 2014
  3. Lebo Nkatazo, In letter, Mugabe appoints Tsvangirai Prime Minister New Zimbabwe Published: December 18, 2008, Retrieved: June 30, 2014
  4. Two years of GNU – Stormy weather ahead..., Zimbabwe Watch, Published: February 8, 2011, Retrieved: June 30, 2014
  5. ,Zimbabwe’s economy during the life of the coalition government, News Day Published: September 5, 2013, Retrieved: June 30, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ministers and Minister of State who must be appointed to the Senate