Difference between revisions of "November 2017 Military Coup"

 
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'''Operation Restore Legacy''' is  an operation which was carried by the [[Zimbabwe Defence Forces]].The operation started on the 15th of November .The Operation targeted criminals around [[Robert Mugabe]] .These criminals included most of Robert Mugabe's allies including his wife [[Grace Mugabe]] who was accused of leading a faction called G40 .The faction was accused of causing political ,economic and social uncertainty in [[Zimbabwe]]
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A '''military coup''' code-named '''Operation Restore Legacy''' was executed in Zimbabwe in '''November 2017''' and it resulted in the forced resignation of President [[Robert Mugabe]]. Mugabe had been the leader of Zimbabwe for thirty-seven years. The coup was led by the military general, [[Constantino Chiwenga]] and it installed [[Emmerson Mnangagwa]] as president.
  
 +
The operation started on '''13 November 2017''' and ended on '''18 December 2017'''.
  
ZIMBABWE TIMELINE – OPERATION RESTORE LEGACY, HOW IT UNFOLDED
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See [[History of Zimbabwe Timeline]].
  
*13 November 2017 - Army Commander General Constantino Chiwenga calls a press conference and warns politicians to stop denigrating the army. Said the army would not hesitate to step in if the revolution is being threatened.
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==Timeline==
 +
* '''13 Nov''' - [[Constantine Chiwengwa]] call press conference. Warns politicians.
 +
* '''15 Nov''' - Television address. ZNA ''targeting criminals around President Mugabe''. Launch of '''Operation Restore Legacy'''.
 +
* '''18 Nov''' - Mass street demonstrations in Harare.
 +
* '''19 Nov''' - Zanu PF expels Mugabe as party leader and tells him step aside or face impeachment. In television speech he does not announce his resignation as expected.
 +
* '''20 Nov''' - Zanu PF Central Committee says it will begin impeachment proceedings. Mnangagwa says he will return to Zimbabwe ''shortly''.
 +
* '''21 Nov''' - Impeachment begins. Interrupted so Mugabe can read his resignation speech. Impeachment continues with joint Senate and House of Assembly sitting. Speaker of Parliament, [[Jacob Mudenda]], announces Mugabe's resignation.
 +
* '''22 Nov''' - Mnangagwa emerges from hiding and returns to Zimbabwe.
 +
* '''24 Nov''' - Mnangagwa sworn in as President.
 +
* '''18 Jan''' - Elections announced, in ''four to five months time''.  
 +
* '''14 Feb''' - [[Morgan Tsvangirai]] dies of cancer.
 +
<ref name="Zimbabwe timeline & chronology of events"> [Supplement to The Herald  Zimbabwe timeline & chronology of events], ''Supplement to The Herald'', Published: 18 April 2019, Retrieved: 7 December 2021''</ref>
  
 +
==The Operation==
 +
After the dismissal of [[Emmerson Mnangagwa]] from the post of Vice President of Zimbabwe and from [[Zanu-PF]] days later, the Commander of the [[Zimbabwe Defence Forces]], [[Constantino Chiwenga]], and several other military generals held a press conference and released a statement warning that the military would not hesitate to step in to solve the problems in [[ Zanu-PF]] that had resulted in a purge of Zanu-PF members with a liberation war background. In a televised address, the army set in motion a military operation and told the nation that the army was  “targeting criminals around former  President Mugabe,“ who were committing crimes that were causing social and economic suffering. The operation triggered the fall, Mugabe, as citizens marched in solidarity with the army's action. The citizen's protests increased pressure on Mugabe who resigned a few hours after the start of his impeachment proceedings.
  
+
==Ambiguity==
*15 November 2017 - In a televised address, the army sets in motion a military operation and tells the nation in a televised address that it is  “targeting criminals around President Mugabe,“ who were committing crimes that were causing social and economic suffering. This signaled the launch of an operation code named Operation Restore Legacy.
+
===Military's definition of the action===
 +
The Military claimed that the operation was not a coup but an initiative which was aimed at restoring discipline within the rank and profile of the ruling party Zanu-PF through targeting criminal elements surrounding the former president Robert Mugabe. The Army accused the criminal elements of sowing seeds of destruction in the party causing social, economic and political uncertainty in the country. Major General S B Moyo reinforced the army's stance via a television statement, he assured the nation and the world that the then president and his family were safe and that this was not a military takeover but a move meant to restore order in the country. “We are only targeting criminals around him who are committing crimes that are causing social and economic suffering in the country in order to bring them to justice,”
 +
.<ref name="NYT"> [ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/14/world/africa/zimbabwe-Mugabe-Mnangagwa-chiwenga.html ], ''  Zimbabwe’s Military, in Apparent Takeover, Says It Has Custody of Mugabe, Published: November 14 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017''</ref>
  
*15 November to 20 November- Catholic Cleric Father Fidelis Mukonori is one of the mediators as President Robert Mugabe negotiates his exit after 37 years in power.
+
===Civilians' definition of the action ===
 +
Zimbabwean locals saw the army's action as a coup, and political analysts described the Zimbabwean military's house arrest of President [[Robert Mugabe]], his wife Grace, and other top state officials as a coup d'état, despite military leaders denying that it has usurped the presidency. <ref name="N24"> [https://www.news24.com/Analysis/its-a-coup-regardless-of-what-zim-military-says-analysts-20171115 ], '' 'It's a coup, despite what Zim military says' – analysts, Published: 15 November 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017''</ref>
  
*21 November 2017- Parliament begins the legal process to impeach President Mugabe at a joint sitting of the Senate and House of Assembly.
+
===Regional definition of the action===
 +
The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) held an emergency TROIKA meeting in Gaborone Botswana to discuss the political situation in Zimbabwe. The meeting resolved that member countries monitor the situation in Zimbabwe as the regional bloc was against military takeovers of legitimately elected governments.  
  
*21 November 2017 -The Speaker of Parliament, Jacob Mudenda announces President Mugabe’s resignation.
+
===International Community's definition of the action===
<ref name="Theherald"> [http://www.herald.co.zw/zimbabwe-timeline-operation-restore-legacy-how-it-unfolded/ZIMBABWE TIMELINE – OPERATION RESTORE LEGACY, HOW IT UNFOLDED ], '', Published: 21 November 2017  , Retrieved:28 November 2017 ''</ref>
+
The International community defined this action as an apparent military take over of the Zimbabwean government. In the capital [[Harare]], as uncertainty over the political situation grew, foreign embassies warned their citizens to stay indoors. The United States Embassy said on its website that “as a result of the ongoing political uncertainty, the ambassador instructed all employees to remain home until the situation of what seems to be a coup settles down. ''Zimbabwe remained in political limbo a day and a half after the military takeover that appears to have put an end to Robert Mugabe’s 37-year grip on power''. <ref name="TG"> [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/15/mugabe-family-military-takes-control-zimbabwe-mnangagwa ], ''Robert Mugabe's grip on Zimbabwe ebbing away after military takes control, Published: 15 November 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017''</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Outcomes of the Operation==
 +
===Arrest of Alleged Criminals===
 +
* '''Ignatius Chombo''' - Zimbabwe’s military detained former Finance Minister [[Ignatius Chombo]] after seizing power in an attempt to root out “criminals” around President [[Robert Mugabe]] who it said were causing social and economic suffering. Chombo was held in military custody for 8 days before being released and dropped off at his house only to be arrested again minutes after being set free. The Former Zimbabwe finance minister was charged with corruption, including trying to defraud the central bank in '''2004'''. He was denied bail and remanded in custody pending trial
 +
 
 +
* '''Kudzanayi Chipanga''' - The former Zanu-PF youth league boss was detained by the army, after reading an apology to the ZDF and General Chiwenga on television. Prior to his detention and Public apology, Chipanga had issued a statement in defiance of the army's directive. He was taken to court after Mugabe had resigned and was charged with kidnapping and communicating falsehoods to the detriment of the (ZDF).
 +
 
 +
* '''Hamandishe''' - Hamandishe was Chipanga 's co-accused and faced charges of kidnapping. He was denied bail in his first court appearance and remanded in custody to '''8 December 2017'''.
 +
 
 +
===Recalling of Robert Mugabe===
 +
Zanu PF recalled Mugabe from the position of party First Secretary and replaced him with [[Emmerson Mnangagwa]] whom Zanu PF also reinstated as a Central Committee member. These decisions were made during a special Central Committee meeting held at that party’s headquarters. <ref name=" TH"> [ http://www.herald.co.zw/zanu-pf-recalls-pres-mugabe/], '' Zanu PF recalls Pres Mugabe Published:20 November 2017, Retrieved: 30 November 2017''</ref>The Central Committee is Zanu PF’s highest decision-making organ outside Congress' meeting was attended by 201 members out of 300 members.
 +
 
 +
===Expulsions from Zanu PF===
 +
* '''Grace Mugabe''' - [[Grace Mugabe]] was recalled from the position of Secretary for the Women’s League of Zanu PF for promoting hate speech, divisiveness and assuming roles and powers not delegated to her office. She was expelled from the party.
 +
 
 +
* '''Mphoko''' - Mphoko was expelled from the party and also lost his job as the Vice President of Zimbabwe when Emmerson Mnangagwa assumed the presidency.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Jonathan Moyo]]''' - The Zanu PF central committee recommended and endorsed the expulsion of Moyo from the party after he was accused of destabilizing and dividing the party, fanning factionalism, among other charges. He was also expelled from Parliament as [[Tsholotsho North]] Legislator.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Saviour Kasukuwere]]''' - On '''19 November 2017''', Kasukuwere was expelled from Zanu PF by their central committee. He was also expelled from Parliament as [[Mt Darwin South]] legislator.
 +
 
 +
* '''Ignatius Chombo''' -  Chombo was expelled as the party's national chairman. He was also expelled from parliament as the [[Zvimba North]] Legislator
 +
 
 +
* '''Kudzanayi Chipanga''' - Chipanga was expelled from the party and lost his Job as the party's youth league boss. He was also expelled from Parliament as the [[Makoni West]] Legislator.
 +
 
 +
* '''Hamandishe''' - He was expelled from Zanu PF and lost his job as the youth league national commissar.
 +
 
 +
* '''[[Walter Mzembi]]''' - Mzembi was expelled from Zanu PF and lost a ministerial post when the cabinet was dissolved by the incoming president.
 +
 
 +
* '''Paul Chimedza''' - He was expelled from the party and lost his job as the Masvingo Provincial Affairs Ministry.
 +
 
 +
==Mnangagwa assuming Presidency==
 +
The operation mounted pressure on Mugabe's regime which forced him to resign. Through weakening Mugabe's power the operation managed to facilitate the reinstatement of [[Emmerson Mnangagwa]] who had been sacked from his post as Vice President of Zimbabwe and expelled from Zanu PF. A central committee resolution gave Mnangagwa his power back which saw him assuming the role of the first secretary of Zanu PF and President of the party.
 +
 
 +
After Mugabe's resignation, Mnangagwa became the 3rd President of Zimbabwe and was sworn in on '''24 November 2017'''. Taking his oath of office, the 75-year-old former security chief, vowed to uphold the constitution and protect the rights of all Zimbabwe's 16 million citizens. <ref name="CBN"> [ https://www.cnbc.com/2017/11/24/mnangagwa-the-crocodile-sworn-in-as-Zimbabwe-president.html], '' Mnangagwa, the "Crocodile," sworn in as Zimbabwe president, Published: 24 November 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017''</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Alleged Deaths and Crimes===
 +
It was alleged by [[Jonathan Moyo]]  that during the Operation Restore Legacy one CIO/DIO from Harare, [[Peter Munetsi]] was killed, among others. Moyo further highlighted that many others were killed, tortured, raped or displaced internally or externally , property was looted or destroyed while guns were stolen. <ref name=""> [ttps://twitter.com/ProfJNMoyo/status/953567482094243840], '', Published: 24 January 2018 , Retrieved: 25 January 2018''</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Exile===
 +
Several top government officials were forced into exile. These include:
 +
* '''Phelekezela Mphoko''' - then the other Vice President. He was believed to be a member of the G40 and was away in Japan on official duty when the military coup happened. Later he returned to the region but stayed in Botswana for some weeks. He later returned to Zimbabwe in '''December 2019'''.
 +
* '''Jonthan Moyo''' - He was believed to be in Kenya.
 +
* '''Saviour Kasukuwere''' - Former Local Government Minister, Kasukuwere was out in exile until '''May 2018''' when he returned.
 +
* '''Patrick Zhuwao'''
 +
 
 +
== End of the operation==
 +
The Zimbabwe Defence forces held a press conference on '''18 December 2017''' to announce the end of the operation which had started on '''15 November 2017'''.
 +
 
 +
==Endorsement by the African Union==
 +
The African Union vowed to work with [[Emmerson Mnangagwa]]’s government and was keen to learn ways it could support it. African Union Commission Chairman Moussa Faki Mahamat mentioned the continental body's decision to work with the administration. The former minister in Robert Mugabe’s government, [[Jonathan Moyo]], implored the African Union to investigate the new government for allegedly removing [[Robert Mugabe]] in a military coup in '''November 2017'''. <ref name="pn"> [https://news.pindula.co.zw/2018/02/20/african-union-accepts-mnangagwa-government/], '', Published: 20 Feb 2018 , Retrieved: 20 Feb 2018''</ref>
 +
 
 +
==References==
 +
<references/>
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Military Coups]]

Latest revision as of 08:25, 7 December 2021

A military coup code-named Operation Restore Legacy was executed in Zimbabwe in November 2017 and it resulted in the forced resignation of President Robert Mugabe. Mugabe had been the leader of Zimbabwe for thirty-seven years. The coup was led by the military general, Constantino Chiwenga and it installed Emmerson Mnangagwa as president.

The operation started on 13 November 2017 and ended on 18 December 2017.

See History of Zimbabwe Timeline.

Timeline

  • 13 Nov - Constantine Chiwengwa call press conference. Warns politicians.
  • 15 Nov - Television address. ZNA targeting criminals around President Mugabe. Launch of Operation Restore Legacy.
  • 18 Nov - Mass street demonstrations in Harare.
  • 19 Nov - Zanu PF expels Mugabe as party leader and tells him step aside or face impeachment. In television speech he does not announce his resignation as expected.
  • 20 Nov - Zanu PF Central Committee says it will begin impeachment proceedings. Mnangagwa says he will return to Zimbabwe shortly.
  • 21 Nov - Impeachment begins. Interrupted so Mugabe can read his resignation speech. Impeachment continues with joint Senate and House of Assembly sitting. Speaker of Parliament, Jacob Mudenda, announces Mugabe's resignation.
  • 22 Nov - Mnangagwa emerges from hiding and returns to Zimbabwe.
  • 24 Nov - Mnangagwa sworn in as President.
  • 18 Jan - Elections announced, in four to five months time.
  • 14 Feb - Morgan Tsvangirai dies of cancer.

[1]

The Operation

After the dismissal of Emmerson Mnangagwa from the post of Vice President of Zimbabwe and from Zanu-PF days later, the Commander of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces, Constantino Chiwenga, and several other military generals held a press conference and released a statement warning that the military would not hesitate to step in to solve the problems in Zanu-PF that had resulted in a purge of Zanu-PF members with a liberation war background. In a televised address, the army set in motion a military operation and told the nation that the army was “targeting criminals around former President Mugabe,“ who were committing crimes that were causing social and economic suffering. The operation triggered the fall, Mugabe, as citizens marched in solidarity with the army's action. The citizen's protests increased pressure on Mugabe who resigned a few hours after the start of his impeachment proceedings.

Ambiguity

Military's definition of the action

The Military claimed that the operation was not a coup but an initiative which was aimed at restoring discipline within the rank and profile of the ruling party Zanu-PF through targeting criminal elements surrounding the former president Robert Mugabe. The Army accused the criminal elements of sowing seeds of destruction in the party causing social, economic and political uncertainty in the country. Major General S B Moyo reinforced the army's stance via a television statement, he assured the nation and the world that the then president and his family were safe and that this was not a military takeover but a move meant to restore order in the country. “We are only targeting criminals around him who are committing crimes that are causing social and economic suffering in the country in order to bring them to justice,” .[2]

Civilians' definition of the action

Zimbabwean locals saw the army's action as a coup, and political analysts described the Zimbabwean military's house arrest of President Robert Mugabe, his wife Grace, and other top state officials as a coup d'état, despite military leaders denying that it has usurped the presidency. [3]

Regional definition of the action

The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) held an emergency TROIKA meeting in Gaborone Botswana to discuss the political situation in Zimbabwe. The meeting resolved that member countries monitor the situation in Zimbabwe as the regional bloc was against military takeovers of legitimately elected governments.

International Community's definition of the action

The International community defined this action as an apparent military take over of the Zimbabwean government. In the capital Harare, as uncertainty over the political situation grew, foreign embassies warned their citizens to stay indoors. The United States Embassy said on its website that “as a result of the ongoing political uncertainty, the ambassador instructed all employees to remain home until the situation of what seems to be a coup settles down. Zimbabwe remained in political limbo a day and a half after the military takeover that appears to have put an end to Robert Mugabe’s 37-year grip on power. [4]

Outcomes of the Operation

Arrest of Alleged Criminals

  • Ignatius Chombo - Zimbabwe’s military detained former Finance Minister Ignatius Chombo after seizing power in an attempt to root out “criminals” around President Robert Mugabe who it said were causing social and economic suffering. Chombo was held in military custody for 8 days before being released and dropped off at his house only to be arrested again minutes after being set free. The Former Zimbabwe finance minister was charged with corruption, including trying to defraud the central bank in 2004. He was denied bail and remanded in custody pending trial
  • Kudzanayi Chipanga - The former Zanu-PF youth league boss was detained by the army, after reading an apology to the ZDF and General Chiwenga on television. Prior to his detention and Public apology, Chipanga had issued a statement in defiance of the army's directive. He was taken to court after Mugabe had resigned and was charged with kidnapping and communicating falsehoods to the detriment of the (ZDF).
  • Hamandishe - Hamandishe was Chipanga 's co-accused and faced charges of kidnapping. He was denied bail in his first court appearance and remanded in custody to 8 December 2017.

Recalling of Robert Mugabe

Zanu PF recalled Mugabe from the position of party First Secretary and replaced him with Emmerson Mnangagwa whom Zanu PF also reinstated as a Central Committee member. These decisions were made during a special Central Committee meeting held at that party’s headquarters. [5]The Central Committee is Zanu PF’s highest decision-making organ outside Congress' meeting was attended by 201 members out of 300 members.

Expulsions from Zanu PF

  • Grace Mugabe - Grace Mugabe was recalled from the position of Secretary for the Women’s League of Zanu PF for promoting hate speech, divisiveness and assuming roles and powers not delegated to her office. She was expelled from the party.
  • Mphoko - Mphoko was expelled from the party and also lost his job as the Vice President of Zimbabwe when Emmerson Mnangagwa assumed the presidency.
  • Jonathan Moyo - The Zanu PF central committee recommended and endorsed the expulsion of Moyo from the party after he was accused of destabilizing and dividing the party, fanning factionalism, among other charges. He was also expelled from Parliament as Tsholotsho North Legislator.
  • Saviour Kasukuwere - On 19 November 2017, Kasukuwere was expelled from Zanu PF by their central committee. He was also expelled from Parliament as Mt Darwin South legislator.
  • Ignatius Chombo - Chombo was expelled as the party's national chairman. He was also expelled from parliament as the Zvimba North Legislator
  • Kudzanayi Chipanga - Chipanga was expelled from the party and lost his Job as the party's youth league boss. He was also expelled from Parliament as the Makoni West Legislator.
  • Hamandishe - He was expelled from Zanu PF and lost his job as the youth league national commissar.
  • Walter Mzembi - Mzembi was expelled from Zanu PF and lost a ministerial post when the cabinet was dissolved by the incoming president.
  • Paul Chimedza - He was expelled from the party and lost his job as the Masvingo Provincial Affairs Ministry.

Mnangagwa assuming Presidency

The operation mounted pressure on Mugabe's regime which forced him to resign. Through weakening Mugabe's power the operation managed to facilitate the reinstatement of Emmerson Mnangagwa who had been sacked from his post as Vice President of Zimbabwe and expelled from Zanu PF. A central committee resolution gave Mnangagwa his power back which saw him assuming the role of the first secretary of Zanu PF and President of the party.

After Mugabe's resignation, Mnangagwa became the 3rd President of Zimbabwe and was sworn in on 24 November 2017. Taking his oath of office, the 75-year-old former security chief, vowed to uphold the constitution and protect the rights of all Zimbabwe's 16 million citizens. [6]

Alleged Deaths and Crimes

It was alleged by Jonathan Moyo that during the Operation Restore Legacy one CIO/DIO from Harare, Peter Munetsi was killed, among others. Moyo further highlighted that many others were killed, tortured, raped or displaced internally or externally , property was looted or destroyed while guns were stolen. [7]

Exile

Several top government officials were forced into exile. These include:

  • Phelekezela Mphoko - then the other Vice President. He was believed to be a member of the G40 and was away in Japan on official duty when the military coup happened. Later he returned to the region but stayed in Botswana for some weeks. He later returned to Zimbabwe in December 2019.
  • Jonthan Moyo - He was believed to be in Kenya.
  • Saviour Kasukuwere - Former Local Government Minister, Kasukuwere was out in exile until May 2018 when he returned.
  • Patrick Zhuwao

End of the operation

The Zimbabwe Defence forces held a press conference on 18 December 2017 to announce the end of the operation which had started on 15 November 2017.

Endorsement by the African Union

The African Union vowed to work with Emmerson Mnangagwa’s government and was keen to learn ways it could support it. African Union Commission Chairman Moussa Faki Mahamat mentioned the continental body's decision to work with the administration. The former minister in Robert Mugabe’s government, Jonathan Moyo, implored the African Union to investigate the new government for allegedly removing Robert Mugabe in a military coup in November 2017. [8]

References

  1. [Supplement to The Herald Zimbabwe timeline & chronology of events], Supplement to The Herald, Published: 18 April 2019, Retrieved: 7 December 2021
  2. [ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/14/world/africa/zimbabwe-Mugabe-Mnangagwa-chiwenga.html ], Zimbabwe’s Military, in Apparent Takeover, Says It Has Custody of Mugabe, Published: November 14 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017
  3. [1], 'It's a coup, despite what Zim military says' – analysts, Published: 15 November 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017
  4. [2], Robert Mugabe's grip on Zimbabwe ebbing away after military takes control, Published: 15 November 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017
  5. [ http://www.herald.co.zw/zanu-pf-recalls-pres-mugabe/], Zanu PF recalls Pres Mugabe Published:20 November 2017, Retrieved: 30 November 2017
  6. [ https://www.cnbc.com/2017/11/24/mnangagwa-the-crocodile-sworn-in-as-Zimbabwe-president.html], Mnangagwa, the "Crocodile," sworn in as Zimbabwe president, Published: 24 November 2017 , Retrieved: 30 November 2017
  7. [ttps://twitter.com/ProfJNMoyo/status/953567482094243840], , Published: 24 January 2018 , Retrieved: 25 January 2018
  8. [3], , Published: 20 Feb 2018 , Retrieved: 20 Feb 2018