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'''Rhodesia''' was a British colony established in Southern Africa under the leadership of [[Cecil Rhodes]] in the early 1890s. The colony was christened after Cecil Rhodes who was the founder of the [[British South Africa Company]] (BSAC) which effected the colonisation of the [[Shona]] and [[Ndebele]] communities of [[Mashonaland]] and [[Matabeleland]] respectively. Rhodesian rule came to an end in April  1980 paving way for [[Zimbabwe]] an independent republic.
+
{{Infobox country
 +
|micronation =        <!--yes if a micronation-->
 +
|conventional_long_name = Republic of Zimbabwe <!--Formal or official full name of the country in English-->
 +
|native_name =        Dzimbabwe <!--Country's name (usually full name) in its native language, hence in italics (double quotemarks)-->
 +
|common_name =    Zimbabwe    <!--Common name in English (used for wikilinks and to produce a default iso3166 code)-->
 +
|status =          Colony <!--Status of country, especially useful for micronations-->
 +
|image_flag =    Rhodesia_flag.png  <!--e.g. Flag of country.svg-->
 +
|alt_flag =      Rhodesia Flag    <!--alt text for flag (text shown when pointer hovers over flag)-->
 +
|flag_border =    No  <!--set to no to disable border around the flag-->
 +
|image_flag2 =        <!--e.g. Second-flag of country.svg-->
 +
|alt_flag2 =          <!--alt text for second flag-->
 +
|flag2_border =      <!--set to no to disable border around the flag-->
 +
|image_coat =    <!--e.g. Coat of arms of country.svg-->
 +
|alt_coat =          <!--alt text for coat of arms-->
 +
|symbol_type =        <!--emblem, seal, etc (if not a coat of arms)-->
 +
|national_motto =    <!--in inverted commas and wikilinked if link exists-->
 +
|englishmotto =      <!--English language version of motto-->
 +
|national_anthem =  Ishe Komborera Africa, God Bless Africa  <!--in italics (double quotemarks) and wikilinked if link exists-->
 +
|royal_anthem =      <!--in italics (double quotemarks) and wikilinked if link exists-->
 +
|other_symbol_type =  <!--Use if a further symbol exists, e.g. hymn-->
 +
|other_symbol =
 +
|image_map =          <!--e.g. LocationCountry.svg-->
 +
|loctext =            <!--text description of location of country-->
 +
|alt_map =            <!--alt text for map-->
 +
|map_caption =        <!--Caption to place below map-->
 +
|image_map2 =        <!--Another map, if required-->
 +
|alt_map2 =          <!--alt text for second map-->
 +
|map_caption2 =      <!--Caption to place below second map-->
 +
|capital =            [[Salisbury]]
 +
|capital2 =            [[Bulawayo]]
 +
|latd= | latm= | latNS= |longd= |longm= |longEW= <!--capital's latitude and longitude in degrees/minutes/direction-->
 +
|largest_city =      Salisbury <!--Name of country/territory's largest city. Use "capital" (without quotemarks) if it's the capital.-->
 +
|largest_settlement_type = Urban <!--Type of settlement if largest settlement not a city-->
 +
|largest_settlement = <!--Name of largest settlement-->
 +
|official_languages = English<!--Languages recognised in legislation, constitution, etc-->
 +
|national_languages = <!--Country/territory-wide languages recognised but not necessarily in country/territory-wide law, etc-->
 +
|regional_languages = <!--Languages recognised or associated with particular regions within the country/territory-->
 +
|languages_type =    Bantu <!--Use to specify a further type of language, if not official, national or regional-->
 +
|languages =          <!--Languages of the further type-->
 +
|languages_sub =      <!--Is this further type of language a sub-item of the previous non-sub type? ("yes" or "no")-->
 +
|languages2_type =    <!--Another further type of language-->
 +
|languages2 =        <!--Languages of this second further type-->
 +
|languages2_sub =    <!--Is the second alternative type of languages a sub-item of the previous non-sub type? ("yes" or "no")-->
 +
|ethnic_groups =    [[Shona]] and [[Ndebele]] <!--List/breakdown of ethnic groups within the country/territory-->
 +
|ethnic_groups_year = <!--Year of ethnic groups data (if provided) or use to place a <ref>-->
 +
|nationalities =      <!--List/breakdown of nationalities within the country/territory-->
 +
|religion =        Christian  <!--Religion-->
 +
|demonym =            <!--Term/s describing those associated with the country/territory (e.g. "Belgian" for the country Belgium)-->
 +
|government_type =  Democratic  <!--(often a compound multi-wikilinked term, e.g. "Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic", etc)-->
 +
|leader_title1 =  Prime Minister <!--(for a country, usually the head of state's (wikilinked) title, e.g. "President", "Monarch")-->
 +
|leader_name1 = [[Ian Smith]]
 +
|leader_title2 =      <!--(could be "Vice President", otherwise "Prime Minster", etc, etc)-->
 +
|leader_name2 =
 +
<!--......-->
 +
|leader_title6 =      <!--(up to six distinct leaders may be included)-->
 +
|leader_name6 =
 +
|legislature =        <!--Name of the country/territory's governing body, e.g. "Parliament", "Congress", etc-->
 +
|upper_house =        <!--Name of governing body's upper house, if given (e.g. "Senate")-->
 +
|lower_house =        <!--Name of governing body's lower house, if given (e.g. "Chamber of Deputies")-->
 +
|sovereignty_type =  <!--Brief description of country/territory's status ("Independence [from...]", "Autonomous province [of...]", etc)-->
 +
|sovereignty_note =
 +
|established_event1 = <!--First key event in history of country/territory's status or formation-->
 +
|established_date1 =  <!--Date of first key event-->
 +
|established_event2 = <!--Second key event-->
 +
|established_date2 =  <!--Date of second key event-->
 +
<!--......-->
 +
|established_event9 = <!--(up to nine distinct events may be included)-->
 +
|established_date9 =
 +
|area_rank =
 +
|area_magnitude =
 +
|area =              <!--Major area size (in [[Template:convert]] either km2 or sqmi first)-->
 +
|area_km2 =          <!--Major area size (in square km)-->
 +
|area_sq_mi =        <!--Area in square mi (requires area_km2)-->
 +
|area_footnote =      <!--Optional footnote for area-->
 +
|percent_water =
 +
|area_label =        <!--Label under "Area" (default is "Total")-->
 +
|area_label2 =        <!--Label below area_label (optional)-->
 +
|area_data2 =        <!--Text after area_label2 (optional)-->
 +
|population_estimate =
 +
|population_estimate_rank =
 +
|population_estimate_year =
 +
|population_census =
 +
|population_census_year =
 +
|population_density_km2 =
 +
|population_density_sq_mi =
 +
|population_density_rank =
 +
|nummembers =        <!--An alternative to population for micronation-->
 +
|GDP_PPP =                    <!--(Gross Domestic Product from Purchasing Power Parity)-->
 +
|GDP_PPP_rank =
 +
|GDP_PPP_year =
 +
|GDP_PPP_per_capita =
 +
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
 +
|GDP_nominal =
 +
|GDP_nominal_rank =
 +
|GDP_nominal_year =
 +
|GDP_nominal_per_capita =
 +
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =
 +
|Gini =                        <!--(Gini measure of income inequality; input number only; valid values are between 0 and 100)-->
 +
|Gini_ref =                    <!--(for any ref/s to associate with Gini number)-->
 +
|Gini_rank =
 +
|Gini_year =
 +
|HDI_year =          <!-- Please use the year to which the data refers, not the publication year-->
 +
|HDI =                <!--(Human Development Index; input number only; valid values are between 0 and 1)-->
 +
|HDI_change =        <!--increase/decrease/steady; rank change from previous year-->
 +
|HDI_rank =
 +
|HDI_ref =            <!--(for any ref/s to associate with HDI number)-->
 +
|currency =      US$    <!--Name/s of currency/ies used in country/territory-->
 +
|currency_code =      <!--ISO 4217 code/s for currency/ies (each usually three capital letters)-->
 +
|time_zone =          <!--e.g. GMT, PST, AST, etc, etc (wikilinked if possible)-->
 +
|utc_offset =        <!--in the form "+N", where N is number of hours offset-->
 +
|time_zone_DST =      <!--Link to DST (Daylight Saving Time) used, otherwise leave empty-->
 +
|utc_offset_DST =    <!--in the form "+N", where N is number of hours offset-->
 +
|DST_note =          <!--Optional note regarding DST use-->
 +
|antipodes =          <!--Place/s exactly on the opposite side of the world to country/territory-->
 +
|date_format =        <!--numeric dates (dd-mm-yyyy, yyyy.mm.dd, etc) plus era (CE, AD, AH, etc)-->
 +
|drives_on =          <!--"right" or "left" (side of road)-->
 +
|cctld =              <!--Internet country code top-level domain identifier (e.g. [[.br]], [[.de]], etc)
 +
|iso3166code =        <!--Use to override default from common_name parameter above; omit using "omit".-->
 +
|calling_code =      <!--e.g. [[+1]], [[+531]], [[+44]], etc-->
 +
|image_map3 =        <!--Optional third map position, e.g. for use with reference to footnotes below it-->
 +
|alt_map3 =          <!--alt text for third map position-->
 +
|footnote_a =        <!--For any footnote <sup>a</sup> used above-->
 +
|footnote_b =        <!--For any footnote <sup>b</sup> used above-->
 +
<!--......-->
 +
|footnote_h =        <!--For any footnote <sup>h</sup> used above-->
 +
|footnotes =          <!--For any generic non-numbered footnotes-->
 +
}}
  
 +
'''Rhodesia''' was a British colony established in Southern Africa which was established in the early 1890s. The colony was christened after [[Cecil Rhodes]] who was the founder of the [[British South Africa Company]] (BSAC) which effected the colonisation of the [[Shona]] and [[Ndebele]] communities of [[Mashonaland]] and [[Matabeleland]] respectively. Rhodesian rule came to an end in April  1980 paving way for [[Zimbabwe]] an independent republic.
  
 
==Brief History==
 
==Brief History==
 
[[Cecil Rhodes]] a British born businessman and investor came to Africa in the late 19th Century. He soon established his company called [[British South Africa Company]].<ref name="cecil">, [http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters&FileName=rhodes.php  Cecil Rhodes], "Heritage History", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> Through his company, he acquired a Charter from the queen of England to colonise the territory North of the Limpopo river under the British flagship. Prior to this, Rhodes had signed a number of treaties and agreements with the [[Ndebele]] kingdom in which the latter was duped into giving out the whole of [[Mashonaland]] to the former.<ref name="cecil"/>  
 
[[Cecil Rhodes]] a British born businessman and investor came to Africa in the late 19th Century. He soon established his company called [[British South Africa Company]].<ref name="cecil">, [http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters&FileName=rhodes.php  Cecil Rhodes], "Heritage History", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> Through his company, he acquired a Charter from the queen of England to colonise the territory North of the Limpopo river under the British flagship. Prior to this, Rhodes had signed a number of treaties and agreements with the [[Ndebele]] kingdom in which the latter was duped into giving out the whole of [[Mashonaland]] to the former.<ref name="cecil"/>  
  
 +
Soon after securing the much needed charter which legalised the colonisation, Rhodes set up an army of explorers called the [[Pioneer Column]] to do the actual colonisation.<ref name="a">, [http://www.lonelyplanet.com/zimbabwe/history History], retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> The column entered the Zimbabwean plateau through Southern Eastern region and established [[Fort Victoria]]. Other forts such as Tuli, Charter and [[Salisbury]] were soon established symbolising the colonisation of the local communities. Soon after establishing its hegemony and erecting the Union Jack flag at Fort [[Salisbury]], the BSAC began to institute its leadership and administrative structures which included the Native Affairs Department, the Police, an Army and the tax collecting organ.<ref name="cecil"/>
 +
{| class="pintablefloat" border="0" style="float:right;color:red;font-size:110%;"
 +
|+Related Articles You Might Want to See
 +
|- class="pintablemore" style="background:#005400;color:#ffffff;font-size:110%;"
 +
| style="text-align:left;" |
 +
* [[Zimbabwe]]
 +
* [[Cecil Rhodes]]
 +
* [[British South Africa Company]]
 +
* [[Pioneer Column]]
 +
* [[First Chimurenga]]
 +
* [[Second Chimurenga]]
 +
|}
  
Soon after securing the much needed charter which legalised the colonisation, Rhodes set up an army of explorers called the [[Pioneer Column]] to do the actual colonisation.<ref name="a">, [http://www.lonelyplanet.com/zimbabwe/history History], retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> The column entered the Zimbabwean plateau through Southern Eastern region and established Fort Victoria. Other forts such as Tuli, Charter and [[Salisbury]] were soon established symbolising the colonisation of the local communities. Soon after establishing its hegemony and erecting the Union Jack flag at Fort [[Salisbury]], the BSAC began to institute its leadership and administrative structures which included the Native Affairs Department, the Police, an Army and the tax collecting organ.<ref name="cecil"/>
+
Rhodesian Ideology
 
 
 
 
 
===The First Chimurenga===
 
===The First Chimurenga===
The First Chimurenga was the first war between the colonisers and the local [[Shona]] and [[Ndebele]] communities. It was led by indigenous traditional leaders such as [[Mbuya Nehanda]] who was an ancestral spirit. The 1890s war resulted in the eventual defeat of the indigenous societies and the establishment of colonial domination.
+
The [[First Chimurenga]] was the first war between the colonisers and the local [[Shona]] and [[Ndebele]] communities. It was led by indigenous traditional leaders such as [[Mbuya Nehanda]] who was an ancestral spirit. The 1890s war resulted in the eventual defeat of the indigenous societies and the establishment of colonial domination.
  
 
==Development==
 
==Development==
In 1923, the BSAC rule came to an end paving way for the British settlers to establish their own government. The Settler government began to institute a number of harsh laws against the local [[Ndebele]], [[Shona]] and Kalanga societies.<ref name="b">, [http://www.historytoday.com/paul-moorcraft/rhodesias-war-independence Rhodesia's War of Independence], "History Today", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> These laws had much to do with the economy. These include the Land Apportionment Act of 1929 which parcelled out all the arable land to the white minority leaving the indigenous black population which small tracts of land. Native reserves were created. Taxation was imposed forcing most of the able bodied men to venture into the wage labour economy.<ref name="b"/>
+
In 1923, the BSAC rule came to an end paving way for the British settlers to establish their own government. The Settler government began to institute a number of harsh laws against the local [[Ndebele]], [[Shona]] and Kalanga societies.<ref name="b">, [http://www.historytoday.com/paul-moorcraft/rhodesias-war-independence Rhodesia's War of Independence], "History Today", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> These laws had much to do with the economy. These include the [[Land Apportionment Act]] of 1929 which parcelled out all the arable land to the white minority leaving the indigenous black population which small tracts of land. Native reserves were created. Taxation was imposed forcing most of the able bodied men to venture into the wage labour economy.<ref name="b"/>
 
 
  
 
In 1965, the settler government led by [[Ian Smith]] came into conflict with its mother country following the calls from the latter to begin preparations for the transition of power to the black majority.<ref name="bbc">, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/11/newsid_2658000/2658445.stm  1965: Rhodesia breaks from UK], "BBC", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> In the face of this situation, [[Ian Smith]] declared the [[Unilateral Declaration of Independence]] (UDI) of Rhodesia from British influence. The settler government refused to take heed resulting in Britain imposing sanctions on the colony. The colony was also unrecognised by the United Nations due to its isolation from its mother country.  
 
In 1965, the settler government led by [[Ian Smith]] came into conflict with its mother country following the calls from the latter to begin preparations for the transition of power to the black majority.<ref name="bbc">, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/11/newsid_2658000/2658445.stm  1965: Rhodesia breaks from UK], "BBC", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> In the face of this situation, [[Ian Smith]] declared the [[Unilateral Declaration of Independence]] (UDI) of Rhodesia from British influence. The settler government refused to take heed resulting in Britain imposing sanctions on the colony. The colony was also unrecognised by the United Nations due to its isolation from its mother country.  
  
 +
==Rhodesian Ideology==
 +
The governance of Rhodesia during the colonial period largely revolved around politics of race. The respective governments were all preoccupied with the need to maintain white supremacy against the blacks. Distribution of resources was also based on race; the white given first preference. In addition, blacks were not given their right to vote or assume any influential decision making post. The major spheres of influence which were protected by the Rhodesian government were,
 +
*White Owned Manufacturing Industries.
 +
*Commercial Farming
 +
*Mining
  
 
==[[Second Chimurenga]] in Rhodesia==
 
==[[Second Chimurenga]] in Rhodesia==
 
The [[Second Chimurenga]] was the second liberation war which began in the early 1960s between the Rhodesian Front government and the nationalist movements. On the forefront of the nationalists movements was the [[National Democratic Party]] (NDP), the [[Zimbabwe African People's Union]] (ZAPU), the [[African National Congress]] (ANC) and the [[Zimbabwe African National Union]] (ZANU). The most effective military organs were the [[Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army]] (ZANLA) and the [[Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army]] (ZIPRA). They were led by the likes of [[Solomon Mujuru]] and [[Josiah Tongogara]].<ref name="c">J. Welford, [http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/the-second-chimurenga-leading-to-the-independence-of-zimbabwe-33936/ The second Chimurenga Leading to the Independence of Zimbabwe], published:19 Oct 2009,retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref>  
 
The [[Second Chimurenga]] was the second liberation war which began in the early 1960s between the Rhodesian Front government and the nationalist movements. On the forefront of the nationalists movements was the [[National Democratic Party]] (NDP), the [[Zimbabwe African People's Union]] (ZAPU), the [[African National Congress]] (ANC) and the [[Zimbabwe African National Union]] (ZANU). The most effective military organs were the [[Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army]] (ZANLA) and the [[Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army]] (ZIPRA). They were led by the likes of [[Solomon Mujuru]] and [[Josiah Tongogara]].<ref name="c">J. Welford, [http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/the-second-chimurenga-leading-to-the-independence-of-zimbabwe-33936/ The second Chimurenga Leading to the Independence of Zimbabwe], published:19 Oct 2009,retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref>  
 
  
 
The liberation war resulted in a number of treaties and negotiations internally. These include the [[Internal Settlement]] from around 1978 led by [[Ndabaningi Sithole]] and [[Abel Muzorewa]]. The internal settlement was rejected with the other nationalist camp resulting in the [[Lancaster House Agreement]] of 1979.
 
The liberation war resulted in a number of treaties and negotiations internally. These include the [[Internal Settlement]] from around 1978 led by [[Ndabaningi Sithole]] and [[Abel Muzorewa]]. The internal settlement was rejected with the other nationalist camp resulting in the [[Lancaster House Agreement]] of 1979.
 
  
 
==Lancaster House Talks==
 
==Lancaster House Talks==
The Lancaster House talks were facilitated by a British Congressman Lord Carrington. They took place in London from September to December 1979. They were moderated by Britain, United States of America together with other front line states such as Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia and Ghana.<ref name="d">, [http://www.rhodesia.nl/lanc1.html CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE HELD AT LANCASTER HOUSE, LONDON SEPTEMBER - DECEMBER 1979], published:1979,retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> Some of the nationalist leaders who took part in the negiations include [[Joshua Nkomo]], [[Robert Mugabe]], [[Edgar Tekere]], [[Joseph Msika]], [[Simon Muzenda]], [[Ndabaningi Sithole]] and [[Josiah Tongogara]].<ref name="d"/> The talks between [[Ian Smith]]'s Rhodesian Front and the nationalist movements resulted in the signing of the [[Lancaster House Agreement]] in December 1979 which subsequently paved way for majority rule in 1980. The elections of 1980 resulted in Zanu under [[Robert Mugabe]] winning with a majority. On the eve of 18 April 1980, the Union Jack flag was brought down at [[Rufaro Stadium]] in [[Salisbury]] symbolising the end of colonial rule and the end of Rhodesia. The country was renamed [[Zimbabwe]].  
+
The [[Lancaster House Agreement]] were facilitated by a British Congressman Lord Carrington. They took place in London from September to December 1979. They were moderated by Britain, United States of America together with other front line states such as Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia and Ghana.<ref name="d">, [http://www.rhodesia.nl/lanc1.html CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE HELD AT LANCASTER HOUSE, LONDON SEPTEMBER - DECEMBER 1979], published:1979,retrieved:21 Jul 2014"</ref> Some of the nationalist leaders who took part in the negotiations include [[Joshua Nkomo]], [[Robert Mugabe]], [[Edgar Tekere]], [[Joseph Msika]], [[Simon Muzenda]], [[Ndabaningi Sithole]] and [[Josiah Tongogara]].<ref name="d"/> The talks between [[Ian Smith]]'s Rhodesian Front and the nationalist movements resulted in the signing of the [[Lancaster House Agreement]] in December 1979 which subsequently paved way for majority rule in 1980. The elections of 1980 resulted in [[ZANU]] under [[Robert Mugabe]] winning with a majority. On the eve of 18 April 1980, the Union Jack flag was brought down at [[Rufaro Stadium]] in [[Salisbury]] symbolising the end of colonial rule and the end of Rhodesia. The country was renamed [[Zimbabwe]].  
  
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==Latest Articles Created on Pindula==
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<news limit="10" onlynew namespaces=0 nobot>
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* [[{{{pagename}}}]]
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</news>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
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{{#seo:
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|title=About Rhodesia - Pindula, Local Knowledge
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|titlemode=replace
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|keywords= Rhodesia, Rhodesia Wikipedia, Rhodesia Zimbabwe, Cecil John Rhodes, History f Rhodesia, History of Zimbabwe, Colonisation of Zimbabwe
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|description=
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}}
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[[Category:History]]
 
[[Category:History]]

Revision as of 10:50, 25 June 2015

Republic of Zimbabwe
Dzimbabwe
Rhodesia Flag
Flag
Anthem: Ishe Komborera Africa, God Bless Africa
StatusColony
Capital
and Urban
Salisbury
Official languagesEnglish
Ethnic groupsShona and Ndebele
ReligionChristian
GovernmentDemocratic
• Prime Minister
Ian Smith
CurrencyUS$
ISO 3166 codeZW

Rhodesia was a British colony established in Southern Africa which was established in the early 1890s. The colony was christened after Cecil Rhodes who was the founder of the British South Africa Company (BSAC) which effected the colonisation of the Shona and Ndebele communities of Mashonaland and Matabeleland respectively. Rhodesian rule came to an end in April 1980 paving way for Zimbabwe an independent republic.

Brief History

Cecil Rhodes a British born businessman and investor came to Africa in the late 19th Century. He soon established his company called British South Africa Company.[1] Through his company, he acquired a Charter from the queen of England to colonise the territory North of the Limpopo river under the British flagship. Prior to this, Rhodes had signed a number of treaties and agreements with the Ndebele kingdom in which the latter was duped into giving out the whole of Mashonaland to the former.[1]

Soon after securing the much needed charter which legalised the colonisation, Rhodes set up an army of explorers called the Pioneer Column to do the actual colonisation.[2] The column entered the Zimbabwean plateau through Southern Eastern region and established Fort Victoria. Other forts such as Tuli, Charter and Salisbury were soon established symbolising the colonisation of the local communities. Soon after establishing its hegemony and erecting the Union Jack flag at Fort Salisbury, the BSAC began to institute its leadership and administrative structures which included the Native Affairs Department, the Police, an Army and the tax collecting organ.[1]

Related Articles You Might Want to See

Rhodesian Ideology

The First Chimurenga

The First Chimurenga was the first war between the colonisers and the local Shona and Ndebele communities. It was led by indigenous traditional leaders such as Mbuya Nehanda who was an ancestral spirit. The 1890s war resulted in the eventual defeat of the indigenous societies and the establishment of colonial domination.

Development

In 1923, the BSAC rule came to an end paving way for the British settlers to establish their own government. The Settler government began to institute a number of harsh laws against the local Ndebele, Shona and Kalanga societies.[3] These laws had much to do with the economy. These include the Land Apportionment Act of 1929 which parcelled out all the arable land to the white minority leaving the indigenous black population which small tracts of land. Native reserves were created. Taxation was imposed forcing most of the able bodied men to venture into the wage labour economy.[3]

In 1965, the settler government led by Ian Smith came into conflict with its mother country following the calls from the latter to begin preparations for the transition of power to the black majority.[4] In the face of this situation, Ian Smith declared the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from British influence. The settler government refused to take heed resulting in Britain imposing sanctions on the colony. The colony was also unrecognised by the United Nations due to its isolation from its mother country.

Rhodesian Ideology

The governance of Rhodesia during the colonial period largely revolved around politics of race. The respective governments were all preoccupied with the need to maintain white supremacy against the blacks. Distribution of resources was also based on race; the white given first preference. In addition, blacks were not given their right to vote or assume any influential decision making post. The major spheres of influence which were protected by the Rhodesian government were,

  • White Owned Manufacturing Industries.
  • Commercial Farming
  • Mining

Second Chimurenga in Rhodesia

The Second Chimurenga was the second liberation war which began in the early 1960s between the Rhodesian Front government and the nationalist movements. On the forefront of the nationalists movements was the National Democratic Party (NDP), the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), the African National Congress (ANC) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU). The most effective military organs were the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA). They were led by the likes of Solomon Mujuru and Josiah Tongogara.[5]

The liberation war resulted in a number of treaties and negotiations internally. These include the Internal Settlement from around 1978 led by Ndabaningi Sithole and Abel Muzorewa. The internal settlement was rejected with the other nationalist camp resulting in the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979.

Lancaster House Talks

The Lancaster House Agreement were facilitated by a British Congressman Lord Carrington. They took place in London from September to December 1979. They were moderated by Britain, United States of America together with other front line states such as Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia and Ghana.[6] Some of the nationalist leaders who took part in the negotiations include Joshua Nkomo, Robert Mugabe, Edgar Tekere, Joseph Msika, Simon Muzenda, Ndabaningi Sithole and Josiah Tongogara.[6] The talks between Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front and the nationalist movements resulted in the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979 which subsequently paved way for majority rule in 1980. The elections of 1980 resulted in ZANU under Robert Mugabe winning with a majority. On the eve of 18 April 1980, the Union Jack flag was brought down at Rufaro Stadium in Salisbury symbolising the end of colonial rule and the end of Rhodesia. The country was renamed Zimbabwe.

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 , Cecil Rhodes, "Heritage History", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"
  2. , History, retrieved:21 Jul 2014"
  3. 3.0 3.1 , Rhodesia's War of Independence, "History Today", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"
  4. , 1965: Rhodesia breaks from UK, "BBC", retrieved:21 Jul 2014"
  5. J. Welford, The second Chimurenga Leading to the Independence of Zimbabwe, published:19 Oct 2009,retrieved:21 Jul 2014"
  6. 6.0 6.1 , CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE HELD AT LANCASTER HOUSE, LONDON SEPTEMBER - DECEMBER 1979, published:1979,retrieved:21 Jul 2014"