Lancaster House Agreement
Prelude to the Agreement
The emergence of nationalist movements such as the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), the Zimbabwe African People's Union, the United National African Congress (UANC) and the National Development Party (NDP)had brought massive political instability in the colony of Rhodesia. This was because of the conflicting ideologies which existed between the minority Rhodesian Front and the above mentioned nationalist movements. These problems catapulted into a full scale war between the two opposing parties.
The front-line states such as Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia, backed by the International powers such as Britain and the USA forged for a political truce through a negotiated settlement. This resulted in the calling for a peace conference. The warring parties met between September and December in 1979 for deliberations on the way forward.
Countries in Attendance
- Britain (Host)
- United States of America
Political Movements and Representatives
- The Rhodesian Front- Ian Smith
- Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)- Robert Mugabe
- Zimbabwe African Patriotic Front (ZAPU)- Joshua Nkomo
- The United African National Congress (UANC)- Bishop Abel Muzorewa
The Conference opened on 10 September 1979 under the chairmanship of Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. The Conference concluded on 15 December, after 47 plenary sessions. The final peace agreement was signed on 21 December 1979. The major signatories were as follows; Ian Smith- Rhodesian Front, Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo- Patriotic Front, and Abel Muzorewa.
Terms of the Agreement
- The Independence of Zimbabwe was to be achieved through suffrage and all qualified citizens were to vote.
- The independent state was to form the Zimbabwe National Army
- Land was to be redistributed on Willing Buyer Willing Seller basis for the first 10 years awaiting policy review.
- A new democratic constitution crafted at Lancaster was to be deployed soon after elections.
- All concerned parties were to be disarmed and stop the war.
- Elections were to be held by March 1980.
In concluding the Agreement, all parties present pledged to;
- to accept the authority of the Governor;
- to abide by the Independence Constitution;
- to comply with the pre-independence arrangements;
- to abide by the cease-fire agreement;
- to campaign peacefully and without intimidation;
- to renounce the use of force for political ends;
- to accept the outcome of the elections and instruct any forces under their authority to do the same.
- , CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE HELD AT LANCASTER HOUSE, LONDON SEPTEMBER - DECEMBER 1979 REPORT, Published:1979, Retrieved:27 Jun 2014"
- A.E Sibanda, The Lancaster House Agreement and the post - independence state in Zimbabwe, Institute of Development Studies,Retrieved:27 Jun 2014"
- L.R Mataire,Independence: Land is the Alpha and Omega, The Herald, published:18 April,retrieved:27 Jun 2014"
- Lancaster House Agreement, "Race and History", published:13 Jul 2008,retrieved:27 Jun 2014"