The Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) was a revolutionary movement which was formed in 1963 to fight against the colonial regime led by Ian Smith. It was formed in Salisbury in 1963 after a split from The Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) led by Joshua Nkomo.
Prelude to ZANU
Since the 1950s, Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) was under intense political struggle between the ruling Rhodesian Front and the nationalist movements. On one hand, the white minority regime was preoccupied with the idea of maintaining their dominance over the indigenous black majority. On the other hand, the black majority was clamouring for political independence calling for the end of colonial rule. This resulted in the formation of political movements such as the African National Congress in 1957, The National Democratic Party in 1959 and the Zimbabwe African People's Union in the early 1960s. Internal disputes in ZAPU under Joshua Nkomo and Joseph Msika in 1963 led to a break away by some of the leaders.
Formation of ZANU
The break away from ZAPU was led by Robert Mugabe, Herbert Chitepo, Enos Nkala and Ndabaningi Sithole. It was these nationalists who formed ZANU in 1963 in Highfield at Enos Nkala's house. Most of the break away nationalists had fallen out of Nkomo's favour resulting in a unity of purpose. At the inaugural ZANU conference in 1963, Ndabaningi Sithole was elected as the Chairman. Herbert Chitepo was elected as the Secretary General.
ZANU believed in the Maoist doctrine of fish and water relationship towards the Second Chimurenga. The fish and water relationship symbolised the relationship between the guerrillas and the masses. They believed that in order to wedge an effective war, the guerrilla movements were supposed to create a cordial relationship with the local masses.
The Maoist doctrine originated from a Chinese revolutionary guru Mao who was popular for pioneering this two tier war relationship. This doctrine was put into practice through out the course of the Second Chimurenga. The Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) which was the revolutionary wing of ZANU relied heavily on the support of the villagers during the war. Bases and camps were established near homesteads for easy supply of food and other basics. Furthermore, ZANU got its financial backing from China and this explains why its ideology was drawn from the Chinese.
Right from its inception, ZANU was marred with internal strife in its rank and file. From the 1960s, there were factions emanating from regionalism. There was the Karanga camp which comprised of the likes of Rugare Gumbo, Simon Muzenda and Kumbirai Kangai. On the other hand there was the Manyika camp which comprised of the likes of Ndabaningi Sithole, Herbert Chitepo and later on Edgar Tekere. It was generally believed that all internal disputes which characterised the the liberation struggle emanated from these differences.
The Nhari rebellion which almost brought the revolution to a standstill was one of the major instances which exposed the in-house wars in the party. The assassination of ZANU chairman Herbert Chitepo in 1975 was believed to be a result of these internal struggles although these rumours were not proved beyond doubt. The assassination of Josiah Tongogara in December was also rumoured to be part of the epic internal struggles within the ZANU party.
Lancaster House Agreement and Ceasefire
ZANU was one of the nationalist movements which actively took part in the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979. This agreement finally resulted in Zimbabwe's independence in April 1980. ZANU was represented by Robert Mugabe, Edgar Tekere, Enos Nkala, Rugare Gumbo and Josiah Tongogara.
The Lancaster House Agreement paved way for the coming of majority elections. The elections were held in March 1980. ZANU under the leadership of Robert Mugabe won 63% of the votes marking the birth of majority rule in the country. Joshua Nkomo's Patriotic Front won twenty out of about 80 seats in parliament.
1987 Unity Accord
The Unity Accord of 1987 was signed between the ruling ZANU government and the sister nationalist party Patriotic Front led by Joshua Nkomo. This resulted in a major of the two parties. This implied that presidential power and legislative power was to be proportionately shared between the two parties. This resulted in the elevation of Joshua Nkomo and other Patriotic Front leaders such as John Nkomo and Joseph Msika. The party then changed its name to Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front as part of the agreement.
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