Emmerson Mnangagwa

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Emmerson Mnangagwa
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Emmerson Mnangagwa
BornEmmerson Mnangagwa
(1942-09-15) September 15, 1942 (age 81)
Karangaland Midlands, Zimbabwe
ResidenceHarare, Zimbabwe.
Alma materUniversity of London
Spouse(s)Auxilia Mnangagwa
ChildrenEmmerson Mnangagwa Junior, Collin, Sean, Chido Emma, Farai Celine, Tariro, Justine Mhurai, Samora Samuel [1]

Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa a politician and the First Secretary of the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front. On 3 August 2018 ZEC Chairperson Priscilla Chigumba announced that Mnangagwa had won the popular vote by 50.8%, hence he was duly elected to be the president of Zimbabwe as of 3 August 2018.

He is former Vice President of Zimbabwe and was dismissed on 5 November 2017. He had been removed from his post as Minister of Justice and replaced by Happyton Bonyongwe a month earlier. A few days after his dismissal as Vice President, Mnangagwa, was expelled from Zanu-PF Party only to be reinstated by the Central Committee on 19 November 2017 as party leader and state-president-in-waiting.Central Committee Meeting Outcome:2017 [2].He was sworn in on the 24th of November 2017 as Head of State and Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces.[3].

  • 1962 - active with UNIP in Lusaka, Zambia.
  • 1963 - Student leader in ZANU.
  • 1964 - member of 'Crocodile' military group.
  • 1976 - with ZANU at Geneva.
  • 1977 - Central Committee, ZANU (PF) as Special Assistant, Administration to the President
  • 1980 - Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office. [4]

Personal Details

Born: 15 September 1942. Tafireyi village in Zvhishavane's Mapanzure area. Mother Mhurai and father Mafidhi Mnangagwa. [5] He was born in a family of six in Zvishavane, Midlands Province. Totem - Shumba Murambwi.
Siblings: 10. including Emma (Elder sister), Jonah, Phillip (Elder brother).
His father relocated to Mumbwa, Zambia in 1954 after being expelled from Zimbabwe for removing a wheel from the land development officer's car in protest against destocking. The Mnangagwa family joined their father in Zambia in 1955 & relocated back to Zimbabwe after independence.
First wife: Jayne Matarise died in 2002 (6 children).

Second Wife: .
Auxilia Mnangagwa. Former MP for Chirumhanzu Zibagwe Parliamentary Seat Midlands Province.

He also has other children,

He has a nephew,

See Emmerson Mnangagwa Children.

School / Education

Primary education in Zvishavane.
Family relocated to Zambia in 1955, where he attended Mumbwa Boarding School, Kafue Trade School and Hodgson Technical College. He was expelled from college in 1960 for political activism and joined the Zambia United National Independent Party.

Political Career

  • Joined the UNIP Youth League in Lusaka & Copperbelt (1959)
  • He joined politics at a very tender age after being recruited into the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) by Willie Musarurwa in 1962. He then went to China and later Egypt where he received his military training in 1963. [7]. Defected to Zanu in 1963. During his early days as a political activist he was nick-named "Ngwena" due to his crocodile style in sabotage activities against the colonial government. [6]
  • Recieved military training in Tanzania, China & Egypt.
  • Chimurenga name, (Nom-de-guerre): Trabablas Dzokerai Mbhunu.
  • 1964 he attended the first Zanu congress in Gweru.
  • Member of the Crocodile gang that was led by William Ndangana

He was arrested and tortured in 1965 after helping blow up a train near Fort Victoria (now Masvingo) He was reportedly given a death sentence but eventually spent the following ten years in prison. The torture was reported to have been so severe that he lost the sense of hearing in one ear and also made him unconscious for days. [8]

  • Blew up a train near Masvingo in 1964, arrested in January 1965 & sentenced to death which was commuted to a 10-year prison sentence (1965 - 1975).

According to Mark Dube, who was arrested in 1964, following the blowing up of a locomotive in Fort Victoria (Masvingo): Sabotage done by a group of youth, trained in Ghana, including Solomon Gomo, Fabian Shoniwa, Emmerson Mnangagwa, Mathius Maloba, and Jimmy Munyavanhu.

This group was lodged at his house, while he was sent to Nuanetsi. After the explosion, the group vanished, and the police arrested Dube and searched his house. He spent 90 days in detention in Wha Wha. [4]

  • Released & deported to Zambia in 1975.
  • Elected as Special Assistant to Robert Mugabe at the Zanu congress in Chimoio heading both the Zanu military & civil security divisions of the party deputized by Zvinavashe.


Emmerson Mnangagwa Timeline

  • 1977 - Mnangagwa was selected as special assistant to the President and a member of the National Executive for Zanu -PF, a position which meant he was head of both the civil and military divisions of the party.
  • 1980 – At independence, he became Minister of State Security from 1980 to 1988.
  • 1985-2000 – He was elected as Kwekwe East Member of Parliament in 1985 and continued to win in successive elections in Kwekwe until 2000.
  • Midlands MP (1980 - 1985)

In the Zimbabwe 1985 Parliamentary Election, Kwekwe East returned to Parliament:

In the 1990 Parliamentary Election (see A History of Zimbabwean Elections) Kwekwe returned to Parliament:

Turnout - 32 428 voters or 78.97 %

In the 2000 Elections, (see A History of Zimbabwean Elections) Kwekwe returned to Parliament:

In the 2013 Elections, (see A History of Zimbabwean Elections) Chirumanzu-Zibagwe returned to Parliament:

  • Emmerson D Mnangagwa of Zanu PF with 17 996 votes or 84.48 percent,
  • Ishmael Jeko of MDC-T with 2 803 votes or 13.16 percent,
  • Janet S Zinyemba of MDC with 503 votes or 2.36 percent,

Total 21 302 votes

  • 1988-2000 – Minister of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs. He had, however, acted as Minister of Finance for about 15 months when the then incumbent, the late national hero Dr Bernard Chidzero, was not feeling well.
  • 2000-2005Mnangagwa was elected Speaker of Parliament.
  • 2005-2009 – Appointed Minister of Rural Housing and Social Amenities.
  • 2008 – Elected MP for Chirumhanzu Zibagwe constituency.
  • 2009-2013 – Appointed Minister of Defence and then Minister of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs.
  • 2014 – Appointed Vice President following the dismissal of Joice Mujuru, and doubled up as the Minister of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs.
  • October 2017 – Removed from the Justice portfolio Following a Cabinet reshuffle, and later dismissed from Government on 6 November 2017.
  • 8 November 2017 – Expelled from Zanu-PF, although he had already left the country following attempts on his life after he was dismissed as Vice President of the Zimbabwe.
  • 19 November 2017 – An extraordinary session of the Zanu-PF Central Committee readmits Mnangagwa as First Secretary and President while sacking former President Robert Mugabe and his wife Grace Mugabe at the same time.
  • 21 November 2017Lovemore Matuke notified Parliament that Zanu-PF had nominated Mnangagwa to replace former President Mugabe.
  • 22 November 2017 – Returned to Zimbabwe after self-imposed exile.
  • 23 November 2017 – Inaugurated as the head of State and Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces. [9]


Mnangagwa was largely involved in the infamous Gukurahundi Massacres that took place in the 1980s. He was reported to have worked hand in hand with the army to suppress Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) then led by Joshua Nkomo. After appointment as National Security Minister in 1980, Mnangagwa was in charge of the Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO) and the organisation took part in the massacres resulting in the deaths of an estimated 20 000 lives in Matabeleland and Manicaland Province.[10] His nickname the 'Crocodile' was very prominent in this era. [11]

Gukurahundi apology

During an interview at the sidelines of the World Economic Forum held in Davos, Switzerland Mnangagwa refused to apologize for the Gukurahundi atrocity that happened in the 1980s whilst he was still a Minister in the Mugabe administration. While being interviewed by Mishal Husain, Mnangagwa admitted that he was in a position of power when the Gukurahundi massacres took place. Mnangagwa was Minister of National Security which was responsible for the Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO). He said that he was open to appearing before the National Healing and Peace Commission. He, however, disputed the 20 000 figure and said that the number of casualties is actually lesser than that. When told that he could just apologise for the atrocities as a starting point, Mnangagwa said there is nothing more than him signing the Peace and Reconciliation Bill into law. [12]

DRC Minerals

Mnangagwa was pointed out by the United Nations in 2001 as the architect behind Zanu-PF's illicit dealings in the Democratic Republic of Congo. These deals had to do with the Zimbabwe National Army and other unnamed businessmen from both countries. There was widespread speculation that he got access to the DRC's mineral wealth due to Zimbabwe's taking part in the war. [13]

He is named as the CEO of Cosleg Private Limited which was established for the purpose of pursuing business opportunities in timber and minerals, and diamond mining found in the Democratic Republic of Congo's Katanga Province. The deal with signed between Robert Mugabe and Laurent Kabila on 4 September 1997, and the start of the Second Congo War.

Unlawful Release

There were allegations that were made in the press to the effect that Mnangagwa had unlawfully facilitated the release of George Tanyanyiwa Chikanga in 2000. This was reported to have taken place while he was still the minister of Legal and Parliamentary affairs. [14] Chikanga was reported to have committed several crimes ranging from armed robbery to fraud, involving figures reaching up to USD 7 million.[15]

Share Dispute

Mnangagwa and his son Emmerson Jnr were involved in a $600 000 shares dispute between two Harare businessmen Brian Jembere and Paris Olympics. The local media reported that Jembere bought $600 000 worth of shares in Olympics’ H.E.R (Private) Limited company. Mnangagwa’s wife reportedly operates a salon at H.E.R premises, which is located at number 18311 Chiremba Road in Hillside in Harare. It was strongly believed that Olympics being closely linked to Mnangagwa used the Zimbabwe Republic Police to abuse the country’s criminal justice system to outdo Jembere. [16]

Farm Mechanisation Scheme

In July 2020, Emmerson Mngangwagwa was listed, in the BSR of 18 July 2020, as a beneficiary in the 2007 RBZ Farm Mechanisation Scheme, as a result of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme.

The data is analysed by recipients origin:.

  • Mashonaland provinces had the most beneficiaries, both in terms of numbers and value.

Mashonaland East got US$47,5 million,
Mashonaland West US$44,7 million
Mashonaland Central had US$34,2 million.

  • Two Matebeleland provinces had a combined total of US$13,9 million.
  • Masvingo had US$26,4 million,
  • Manicaland US$18 million and
  • Midlands had US$14 million.

Emmerson Mngangwagwa is listed under the thematic group “Politicians”. His farm is Pricabe Enterprises. The amount is US$411,728.00. The list suggests that this is still outstanding. [17]

Tsholotsho Declaration

In 2004, in what became known as the Tsholotsho Declaration, a group led by six Zanu PF provincial chairmen, some members of the Politburo, Central Committee, MPs, Veterans of the War of Liberation met at Dinyane Secondary School in Tsholotsho where an agreement was allegedly struck to install Emmerson Mnangagwa in the presidium following the death of Simon Muzenda. [18]

Under the scheme, Mnangagwa would assume the vice-presidency and eventually the leadership of Zanu-PF and the country. The meeting was allegedly held ahead of a key Zanu-PF congress in 2004. Although Mnangagwa had secured the support of six of the country’s 10 provinces, he was outdone by Mugabe’s move to amend the party’s constitution to ensure that one of the party’s vice-presidents was a woman. The decision saw Joice Mujuru being appointed vice-president.[19].

Following the failure of the succession plot, participants in the declaration were suspended from the party with the exception of Mnangagwa who was appointed Minister of Rural Housing and Social Amenities, a position considered to be of low significance[20]

2007 Coup Plan

Ouster of Mujuru and Appointment as Vice President

Mnangagwa was eventually appointed as Vice President of Zimbabwe in 2014 after the Factionalism in Zanu-PF saw the ouster of Joice Mujuru from Zanu-PF, Mujuru was dismissed from the presidium by Former President Robert Mugabe due to her alleged abuse of office and incompetence. Mnangagwa's appointment followed 10 days later, on 10 December 2014 during the publicized ZANU PF 6th National People's Conference held from 2 December in Harare. [21]

Mnangagwa was appointed as both second secretary of the Zanu- PF party as well as state Vice President of the country. He was appointed together with Phelekezela Mphoko representing the ZAPU (Zimbabwe African People's Union) wing as part of the Unity Accord agreement. Mnangagwa's appointment came after years of speculation on who would land the job after the death of John Nkomo. Most analysts predicted Mnangagwa would land the post due to his unquestioned loyalty to Robert Mugabe. There was also speculation that the decline of the Mujuru led faction and the relegation of Joice Mujuru left Mnangagwa with considerable support both in the politburo as well as in the Central Committee. It is generally believed that Mnangagwa enjoyed popular support from Zanu-PF forefront leaders such as the former Secretary of the Women's League Grace Mugabe, Jonathan Moyo, Oppah Muchinguri, Obert Mpofu and Christopher Mutsvangwa.

Team Lacoste vs G40

These two factions, part of Zanu-PF, created a lot of friction and finger pointing as to who did what, very evidently. Some members of the party openly talked about the two factions on rallies. The main points being how one faction might outdo the other and which faction was better. Mnangagwa was tied to the Lacoste Faction (a play on Mnangagwa's nickname which means crocodile and the crocodile logo on the Lacoste clothing label) while the G40 was reported to have been led by Grace Mugabe.[22]

Emmerson Mnangagwa was mentioned in 2014 in the Zanu-PF Dirty Dozen finger pointing.

Dimissal and Expulsion from the party

Emerson Mnangagwa was dismissed from Government on various charges including discharging his duties in a manner inconsistent with his official duties, disloyalty, disrespect, deceitfulness and unreliability and a lack of probity in the execution of his duties by Robert Mugabe. [23] Following recommendations from Zanu-PF Youth League, Zanu-PF Women's League, and ten provinces that Mnangagwa should be expelled from the party, he was expelled following the 313th ordinary session of the Politburo on the 8th of November 2017. [24] This dismissal was generally thought as motivated by the increasingly tense factional fights.

Reinstatement into the Party

The Zanu-PF Central Committee, which is the highest decision-making body outside of Congress, dismissed Robert Mugabe as the party leader and first secretary of Zanu-PF on 19 November 2017. Emmerson Mnangagwa was appointed party leader and state-president-in-waiting. [25]

Assuming The Presidency

On 24 November 2017 Emmerson Mnangagwa was sworn in as President of Zimbabwe after Zanu-PF had voted him as president in waiting and reinstatement into the party. The swearing in took place at the National Sports Stadium in Harare and was conducted by Luke Malaba.

Alleged Assasination Attempts

Attempted Poisoning 2014

The Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation Television reported that there was an attempt to poison the former Vice President just before he was appointed Vice President. Unknown assailants were believed to have sprinkled the deadly cyanide poison in Mnangagwa’s office at the new government complex in Harare. [21] It was also reported that Mnangagwa was lucky to survive after his secretary, the first one to enter into office was seriously affected by the poison. She was rushed to a local hospital where she was treated. [21] Former President Robert Mugabe broke the news on 10 December 2014 while announcing the new look on Zanu-PF Politburo, which saw Mnangagwa replace Joyce Mujuru as Robert Mugabe’s deputy. [21]

Ice Cream Poisoning 2017

Mnangagwa was ferried from a Youth Interface Rally in Gwanda in August 2017, after he fell ill and started vomiting. It was alleged that he had eaten ice cream from Gushungo Dairy. He was later airlifted to South Africa, where he was reported to have recovered. However, days later the then Minister of Information and Publicity Christopher Mushohwe, dismissed the poisoning allegations refuting that Mnangagwa had not eaten any ice cream at all. He was reported to have said that the former Vice President had instead eaten stale food which had upset his stomach. Mnangagwa further confirmed that he was not poisoned.

“I would like to put it on record straight regarding my alleged consumption of ice cream from Gushungo Dairy at the High Table on the occasion of the Youth Interface Rally at Pelandaba Stadium in Gwanda, in Matabeleland South Province on Saturday 12th August 2017. No such thing ever occurred. The insinuation that I partook ice cream from the said dairy is false and mischievous, and being peddled by unscrupulous elements with a sinister agenda of creating a rift between me and the first family and lower market confidence in the products from the dairy and cause unnecessary alarm and despondency among peace-loving Zimbabweans."

However, at the end of September 2017, Mnangagwa confirmed rumours that he had been poisoned which he and state officials had dismissed. Speaking at the memorial service of the late Shuvai Mahofa in Masvingo, Mnangagwa said:

“I have come to tell you that what happened to Mai Mahofa in Victoria Falls is what also happened to me. “I am making tremendous recovery. Those who wished me dead will be ashamed because when God’s time for one to die is not up, he will not die. I still have many years to live and the truth will come out,” [26]

November 2017 Assassination Attempt

Upon his return after the reinstatement, Mnangagwa reportedly indicated in his opening speech that he had fled the country and went into exile. The main reason reported was that he was informed that his life was in danger and there were plans to eliminate him within two hours of him getting the letter of dismissal. Emmerson Mnangagwa’s First Speech After Returning To The Country

June 2018 Explosion At Bulawayo Rally

On 23 June 2018, after Mnangagwa addressed as rally at White City Stadium in Bulawayo, an explosion (possibly a grenade) went off as he left the stage. Several people near him were injured including, Vice President Kembo Mohadi, Marry Chiwenga (wife to Vice President Constantino Chiwenga) and others. Mnangagwa himself escaped unscathed.

Commenting on the attack later that day, Mnangagwa said that the cowardly act would not get in the way of holding a peaceful election on 30 July 2018. [27]

After Emmerson Mnangagwa survived this assassination attempt, he said that Zimbabweans should address their differences amicably and not resort to violence to resolve any conflict.

In a statement following a blast at White City Stadium in the country’s second largest city, Bulawayo, Mnangagwa urged Zimbabweans to always embrace each other with love and not engage in violence. [28]

Mnangagwa’s Administration placed Under USA Sanctions

United States renewed sanctions against Mnangagwa’s administration and former ZANU-PF leader Robert Mugabe and his wife Grace. New Ministers appointed after the Mugabe ouster and who were not on the list of targeted sanctions were also added on the list.

Promises Made by Emmerson Mnangagwa

  • Emmerson Mnangagwa pledged for the first democratic vote since Robert Mugabe was deposed.
  • Emmerson Mnangagwa promised to pay compensation for land grabs during the Fast track land reform.
  • Mnangagwa promised jobs
  • Mnangagwa promised financial stability
  • Mnangagwa promised smooth transition of power if he lost the 2018 election.

TIME Magazine’s 100 Most Influential people

In 2018 Mnangagwa was listed on TIME magazine’s 100 Most Influential people in the world. He was listed together with US-based South African comedian Trevor Noah. Mnangagwa was listed in the leaders category. [29]

Promise to step down in the event of loosing the 2018 presidential election

Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Lieutenant-General (retired) Sibusiso Moyo said that President Emmerson Mnangagwa was prepared to step down if he lost the 2018 presidential elections to MDC-T leader Nelson Chamisa or any other opposition candidate. Minister Moyo made the revelation at Chatham House in the United Kingdom, where he spoke on the government’s plans for re-engagement and renewal of Zimbabwe’s international economic relations. [30]

launching campaign pledge card

Mnangagwa launched a campaign pledge card and called on Zimbabweans to hold him accountable for his promises. Releasing the pledge card, Mnangagwa, who was the Zanu PF presidential candidate in the 30 July harmonised elections said in the new Zimbabwe leaders must be public servants, be open, transparent and accountable to the people.

He said each pledge card has his signature and should be considered a coupon of progress and development and a certificate of trust between the people and himself.[31]

Zimbabwe is open for Bussiness

Mnangagwa said the country was "open for business" after almost four decades of oppressive rule by former leader Robert Mugabe. Mnangagwa said his priority was embracing the international economy and modernizing infrastructure, in an interview with CNN's Richard Quest at the World Economic Forum in Davos. Mnangagwa pledged "zero tolerance on corruption" and said he was "doing everything possible to deal with our debts.[32]

Warning Oppostion parties

Addressing a rally outside Mucheke Stadium, Mnangagwa warned the opposition that Zanu PF revenge will be sour if they continued to assult and intimidate Zanu-PF suppoters.

Let’s show humility in Zanu PF and respect. Our respect and calmness should, however, not be regarded as weakness, if you anger us, you will see us, when things come to a head, you will see that we are not cheap people. When things are bad, we will be equal to the challenge. Do not start it with us,” he said.


2018 campaign videos

Casting the ballot Kwekwe 2018 elections

Congratulations messages

Cyril Rhamaposa

Cyril Ramaphosa, who was also the chairperson of SADC, called and congratulated Mnangagwa on his election as president of Zimbabwe, following elections which were held on the 30th of July 2018[34].


In February 2022, an article listed individuals who have seen benefits from Mnangagwa's government:

The patronage politics of the past few decades of Zanu-PF rule and the mineral riches and other economic goodies on offer in Zimbabwe, have swollen a private sector that resembles the adventurers, buccaneers and rogues of Rhodes’s era. As Zimbabwe’s economy has spiraled down, with one million economic refugees in South Africa alone and ordinary people facing shortages of food, fuel, medicine and shelter, there is a class of people who have done extremely well out of the system.

These are:


Nomination Court June 2023

The nomination court on 21 June 2023 produced eleven presidential candidates for the August elections.[24]
They are:

Elisabeth Valerio Duly Nominated

On 16 August 2023, ZEC chief elections officer, Utloile Silaigwana said: following an order of the Electoral Court sitting in Harare, issued on 19 July 2023, Ms. Elisabeth Isabel Valerio, a candidate sponsored by the United Zimbabwe Alliance (UZA) party, is hereby declared a duly nominated Presidential candidate. The other aspiring presidential candidates, Saviour Kasukuwere and Linda Masarira’s appeals were rejected by the courts. Her nomination papers were rejected despite providing bank-stamped proof of her request to initiate a ZWL transfer of funds to the ZEC bank account for the required nomination fees equivalent to US$20 000. The other candidates are Emmerson Mnangagwa of Zanu PF, Joseph Makamba Busha of Free Zim Congress, Nelson Chamisa of CCC, Trust Chikohora of ZCPD, Blessing Kasiyamhuru of ZIPP, Lovemore Madhuku of NCA, Wilbert Mubaiwa of NPC, Gwinyai Henry Muzorewa of UANC, Douglas Mwonzora of MDC and Wilson Harry Peter of DOP. [36]

2023 Results

Presidential Votes
Candidate (Party) Number of Votes % of votes
Joseph Makamba Busha (FreeZim Congress) 18 816 0.4%
Nelson Chamisa (CCC) 1 968 343 44.3%
Trust Chikohora (ZCPD) 10 230 0.2%
Blessing Kasiyamhuru (ZIPP) 13 060 0.3%
Lovemore Madhuku (NCA) 5 323 0.1%
Emmerson Mnangagwa (Zanu PF) 2 350 711 52.9%
Wilbert Mubaiwa (National People's Congress) (NPC) 53 517 1.2%
Gwinyai Henry Muzorewa (UANC) 7 053 0.1%
Elisabeth Valerio (UZA) 6 989 0.15%
Harry Peter Wilson (Democratic Opposition Party) (DOP) 6 743 0.15%

Total votes: 4 440 449


Comment on Nicknname

Mnangagwa was reported to have said this about his nickname::

“You know the trait of a crocodile, don’t you? It never hunts outside water. It always goes into the water to catch its prey. It never goes in the villages or in the bush looking for food. It strikes at the appropriate time. So a good guerrilla leader strikes at the appropriate time. That’s the import of the nicknames we give each other”[37]


  1. BLESSED MHLANGA, Mnangagwa’s son charged, Newsday, Published: 18 Feb 2016, Retrieved: 18 Feb 2016
  2. [1], , Published: 22 March 2016, Retrieved: 27 July 2016
  3. Mnangagwa sworn in as Zimbabwe’s new President , , Published: 24 November 2017 , Retrieved: 24 November 2017
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  5. President Consoles Mnangagwa Family, The Zimbabwe Situation, Published: December 11, 2010, Retrieved:January 22, 2015
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  7. Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa
  8. Profile: Emmerson Mnangagwa
  9. Breaking ED Mnangagwa Fired, 'The Herald', Published: 6 November 2017, Retrieved: 24 November 2017
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  11. Robert Mugabe strikes secret deal to hand Zimbabwe power to Emmerson Mnangagwa
  12. [2], Mnangagwa Refuses To Apologise For Gukurahundi, Says The Commission Is Enough, Published: 24 January 2018 , Retrieved: January 24 2018
  13. J. Winter, Profile: Emmerson Mnangagwa, "BBC News", published:30 Mar 07,retrieved:11 Dec 14"
  14. Zimbabwe: State Completes Probe Into Mnangagwa, Chikanga Case, AllAfrica, Published: September 20, 2002, Retrieved: January 7, 2015,
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  16. T. Kamhungira, Mnangagwa sucked into $600 000 share dispute,Nehanda Radio, published:13 Jan 2015,retrieved:14 Jan 2015"
  17. https://www.bigsr.co.uk/single-post/2020/07/18/BSR-EXCLUSIVE-Beneficiaries-of-the-RBZ-Farm-Mechanisation-Scheme BSR EXCLUSIVE: Beneficiaries of the RBZ Farm Mechanisation Scheme], Big Saturday Read, Published: 18 July 2020 Retrieved: 18 July 2020
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  20. Alex Magaisa, The Year Of The Crocodile, Alex Magaisa, published: December 10, 2014, retrieved: Aug 1, 2016
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 , VP Mnangagwa escapes poisoning, "ZBC", published:10 Dec 2014,retrieved:11 Dec 2014"
  22. Lacoste vs G40: ED ‘poisoning’ triggers vicious fight , The Standard, Published: 10 September 2017, Retrieved: 11 November 2017
  23. Zanu-PF expels Mnangagwa, The Herald, Published: 09 November 2017, Retrieved: 09 November 2017
  24. 24.0 24.1 11 candidates vie for Presidency, The Herald, Published: 23 June 2023, Retrieved: 23 June 2023
  25. of People Expelled From Zanu-PF Following Central Committee Meeting, Published: 19 November 2017 , Retrieved: 22 November 2017
  26. verson Mushava/Blessed Mhlanga, It’s gloves off: Mnangagwa NewsDay, Retrieved: October 2, 2017
  27. Explosion At Mnangagwa Bulawayo Rally ⋆ Pindula News, Pindula News, published: 23 Jun 2018, retrieved: 24 Jun 2018
  28. President Mnangagwa Calls for Peace, Love After Stadium Blast, VOA, retrieved: 25 Jul 2018
  29. [3], President Emmerson Mnangagwa has been listed on TIME magazine’s 100 Most Influential people in the world, Published: DATE_PUBLISHED_HERE , Retrieved: 20 April 2018
  30. [4], Mnangagwa Is Prepared To Step Down If He Loses 2018 Elections: S.B. Moyo, Published: 24 April 2018 , Retrieved: 24 April 2018
  31. Mnangagwa launches campaign pledge card, The Zimbabwe Mail, retrieved: 25 Jul 2018
  32. President Mnangagwa: Zimbabwe 'open for business' , CNN, retrieved: 25 Jul 2018
  33. Mnangagwa warns opposition parties over violence - NewsDay Zimbabwe, NewsDay Zimbabwe, published: 17 Jun 2018, retrieved: 25 Jul 2018
  34. Ramaphosa congratulates Mnangagwa, Bulawayo24 News, retrieved: 3 Aug 2018
  35. Mnangagwa’s oligarchs: The heirs of Cecil Rhodes, Daily Maverick, Published: 7 February 2022, Retrieved: 11 February 2022
  36. ZEC Declares Elisabeth Valerio A Duly Nominated Presidential Candidate, Pindula, Published: 16 August 2023, Retrieved: 18 August 2023
  37. Alex Magaisa, Interview with “The Crocodile”: Insights from Mnangagwa’s recent interview , AlexMagaisa.com , Published:4 September 2015 , Retrieved: 19 February 2016

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